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José M. Cancela, Karina Pereira, Irimia Mollinedo, Manuela Ferreira and Pedro Bezerra

Introduction: Research on variables that encourage older adults to exercise is limited. This study was carried out to identify the participation motives of older Europeans involved in regular exercise. Methods: The 418 (170 men, 248 women) who participated in the survey are participants of the Erasmus Plus European Project In Common Sports. The participants were divided into two groups. Italy, Portugal, and Spain formed the Southern Europe group, and Bulgaria and Hungary the Eastern European group. All participants completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire: Older Adults. Results: The most highly reported motives for participation were to have fun, stay in shape, keep healthy, and an enjoyment of exercise. Principal-components analysis of the questionnaire revealed six factors: social, fitness, recognition, challenge/benefits, medical, and involvement. Conclusions: The reasons why the residents of Southern European practice exercise are more related to medical reasons, while for Eastern Europe these reasons are more related to recognition.

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Erin K. Howie, Justin M. Guagliano, Karen Milton, Stewart A. Vella, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Justin Richards and Russell R. Pate

Background: Sport has been identified as one of the 7 best investments for increasing physical activity levels across the life span. Several questions remain on how to effectively utilize youth sport as a strategy for increasing physical activity and improving health in youth. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main research priorities in the areas of youth sport and physical activity for health. Methods: An international expert panel was convened, selected to cover a wide spectrum of topics related to youth sport. The group developed a draft set of potential research priorities, and relevant research was scoped. Through an iterative process, the group reached consensus on the top 10 research priorities. Results: The 10 research priorities were identified related to sport participation rates, physical activity from sport, the contribution of sport to health, and the overall return on investment from youth sport. For each research priority, the current evidence is summarized, key research gaps are noted, and immediate research needs are suggested. Conclusion: The identified research priorities are intended to guide researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to increase the evidence base on which to base the design, delivery, and policies of youth sport programs to deliver health benefits.

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Dagmar Linnhoff, Shahab Alizadeh, Nina Schaffert and Klaus Mattes

Changing gait parameters through acoustic feedback is a promising approach in gait therapy. The question remains to what extent, if any, the theories and concepts of motor learning have been taken into account for acoustic feedback systems development. Fifteen studies were identified for further analysis using a scoping review framework, among which seven had individuals with disordered gait as their population and eight incorporated healthy individuals. It was found that most studies used error feedback and did not test for long-term effects on gait parameters. It can be concluded that future studies should apply motor learning theories and concepts to the development of acoustic feedback devices for gait therapy.

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Kathryn A. Coniglio and Edward A. Selby

Pathological exercise behavior is pervasive in eating disorder psychopathology, yet minimal treatment guidance exists for extinguishing it as little is known about how to differentiate pathological from healthy exercise. The purpose of this study was to characterize pathological exercise in terms of motivation to increase the specificity with which both pathological and healthy exercise is described and to inform treatment interventions. Latent profile analysis characterized homogenous groups based on exercise motivation in two samples: college women (n = 200) and women with eating psychopathology (n = 211). These profiles were compared on levels of eating and general psychopathology and emotion dysregulation. Three profiles emerged describing sedentary, pathological exercise, and athlete groups in the first sample, and five profiles describing neutral, sedentary, weight loss, athlete, and pathological exercise groups emerged in the second sample. Findings indicate that motivation style is salient in defining pathological exercise and may, therefore, be a clinically useful treatment target.

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Collin C. Brooks and Jaimie M. McMullen

Purpose: This study explored one physical education teacher’s engagement in an online professional learning community and her perceptions of its impact on her own feelings of isolation. Sense of community theory was used as a lens to explore the data. Method: Using a single instrumental case study design, the participant of this study was a female physical education teacher. The data were collected through semistructured interviews, public tweets (Twitter), and informal participant communication (Voxer). The data were analyzed using categorical aggregation, and codes with similar meanings were combined to develop themes. Results: Three themes were evident across data sources that represented her perceptions of participation in an online professional learning community: (a) taking initiative, (b) different support systems, and (c) stages of social media participation. Conclusion: Social media can provide a sense of community for physical education teachers, allowing them to feel less isolated.

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Rachel M. Koldenhoven, Kelly Martin, Abbis H. Jaffri, Susan Saliba and Jay Hertel

Context: Many individuals who suffer a lateral ankle sprain will develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Individuals with CAI demonstrate kinematic differences in walking gait, as well as somatosensory alterations compared with healthy individuals. However, the role of vision during walking gait in this population remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate ankle kinematics, gaze deviations, and gaze velocity between participants with CAI and healthy controls while walking on a treadmill during 3 separate visual conditions (no target, fixed target, and moving target). Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients (or Other Participants): Ten CAI participants and 10 healthy matched controls participated. Main Outcome Measures: Ankle sagittal and frontal plane kinematics were analyzed for the entire gait cycle. Average and standard deviation (SD) for gaze deviation and gaze velocity were calculated in the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes. Results: No significant differences were found between groups for either ankle kinematics or gaze variables; however, large effect sizes were found in the no target condition for average deviation of X (healthy 0.05 [0.02], CAI 0.12 [0.11]). Moderate effect sizes were identified in the no target condition for SD of Y (healthy 0.04 [0.03], CAI 0.11 [0.15]) and the moving target condition for average velocity of X (healthy 1.56 [0.73], CAI 2.27 [1.15]) and Y (healthy 1.07 [0.51], CAI 1.47 [0.52]). Conclusions: Although no significant differences were found between groups, it is possible that the role of vision in individuals with CAI may be altered with a more difficult task.

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Kathy Babiak and Stacy-Lynn Sant

Professional athletes are increasingly engaged in social impact efforts via charitable endeavors. Despite seemingly good intentions in these efforts, the media’s representation of athlete philanthropy varies widely. This study examines how discourses of athlete charity are represented in U.S. media coverage. Over 100 newspaper articles were obtained for the period of 2005–2017. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis which consisted of attribute coding for basic article characteristics, identification of both framing and reasoning devices, and deductive coding to identify generic media frames. The authors present an adapted frame matrix highlighting the salient frames in media coverage of athlete philanthropy. Our results show that athlete charitable efforts are related to a personal or emotional connection or linked to an economic perspective around philanthropy. A third frame reflected a moral underpinning to athletes’ charitable work. The authors discuss managerial implications for teams and leagues that provide support for athletes’ charitable work, as well as for the athletes themselves.

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Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit and Louise Deldicque

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a 6-week taekwondo-specific high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in simulated normobaric hypoxia on physical fitness and performance in taekwondoists. Methods: Eighteen male and female black-belt taekwondoists trained twice a week for 6 weeks in normoxia or in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.143 O2). The HIIT was composed of specific taekwondo movements and simulated fights. Body composition analyses and a frequency speed of kick test during 10 seconds (FSKT10s) and 5 × 10 seconds (FSKTmult), countermovement jump (CMJ) test, Wingate test, and an incremental treadmill test were performed before and after training. Blood lactate concentrations were measured after the FSKTmult and Wingate tests, and a fatigue index during the tests was calculated. Results: A training effect was found for FSKT10s (+35%, P < .001), FSKTmult (+32%, P < .001), and fatigue index (−48%, P = .002). A training effect was found for CMJ height (+5%, P = .003) during the CMJ test. After training, CMJ height increased in hypoxia only (+7%, P = .005). No effect was found for the parameters measured during Wingate test. For the incremental treadmill test, a training effect was found for peak oxygen consumption (P = .002), the latter being 10% lower after than before training in normoxia only (P = .002). Conclusions: In black-belt taekwondoists, hypoxic HIIT twice a week for 6 weeks provides tiny additional gains on key performance parameters compared with normoxic HIIT. Whether the trivial effects reported here might be of physiological relevance to improve performance remains debatable and should be tested individually.

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Marina B. Pinheiro, Nicola Fairhall, Sarah Walsh, Tristan Chesterfield Franks, Wing Kwok, Adrian Bauman and Catherine Sherrington

Background: Frailty and sarcopenia are common age-related conditions associated with adverse outcomes. Physical activity has been identified as a potential preventive strategy for both frailty and sarcopenia. The authors aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and prevention of frailty and sarcopenia in people aged 65 years and older. Methods: The authors searched for systematic reviews (January 2008 to November 2019) and individual studies (January 2010 to March 2020) in PubMed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies that investigated the effect of physical activity on frailty and/or sarcopenia in people aged 65 years and older. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to rate certainty of evidence. Results: Meta-analysis showed that physical activity probably prevents frailty (4 studies; frailty score pooled standardized mean difference, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.43; P = .017, I 2 = 57%, moderate certainty evidence). Only one trial investigated physical activity for sarcopenia prevention and did not provide conclusive evidence (risk ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–12.19). Five observational studies showed positive associations between physical activity and frailty or sarcopenia prevention. Conclusions: Physical activity probably prevents frailty among people aged 65 years and older. The impact of physical activity on the prevention of sarcopenia remains unknown, but observational studies indicate the preventive role of physical activity.