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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger and Sam J. Zizzi

Little research has integrated mindfulness and perfectionism, particularly within sports wherein athletes are judged on performance to a standard of perfection. The current study had two primary aims: (a) to explore profiles of mindfulness and perfectionism among intercollegiate gymnasts through a person-centered approach and (b) to analyze differences in objective performance across the resulting profiles. The analytic sample consisted of 244 NCAA gymnasts who completed self-report measures of mindfulness and perfectionism. Competitive performance records (i.e., national qualifying scores) were then gathered for participating gymnasts. Cluster analyses revealed a three-cluster solution; however, significant performance differences were not observed across the three profiles due to lower than desired power. Small to moderate effect size estimates provided some evidence that perfectionism may be adaptive to gymnastics performance. Elite-level athletes were represented across three distinct profiles, suggesting that more than one profile of characteristics may be adaptive for reaching high levels of performance.

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Kara K. Palmer, Danielle Harkavy, Sarah M. Rock and Leah E. Robinson

Purpose: Motor skill interventions are effective for improving young children’s fundamental motor skills, but less is known regarding if boys and girls equally benefit from these interventions. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in preschool-aged boys’ and girls’ fundamental motor skills across an intervention. Methods: Sixty-eight children (M age = 4.4 years, SD = 0.44) participated in the study and completed the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition before and after a 600-minute Children’s Health Activity Motor Program (CHAMP) intervention. All girls’ (n = 27) and a random subsample of boys’ (n = 27) total, locomotor subtest, object control skill subtests, and individual skills were compared before (pre) and after (post) CHAMP. Potential sex differences in treatment effects were examined by sex by treatment interactions from repeated measures ANOVA, and potential sex differences in individual skills before, after, and across (change) were examined using MANOVAs. Results: Boys and girls had similar motor skills before and after the intervention. Boys and girls had higher scores at posttest, and CHAMP was equally effective for boys and girls. Boys outperformed girls on the run and kick (p < .05) at posttest. Conclusion: Findings support that CHAMP improves skills for both preschool boys and girls.

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Yang Liu, Senlin Chen and Xiangli Gu

Purpose: The study purpose was to examine performance differences in physical education among learners from two middle schools from two different states. Methods: Performance in physical education was represented by attitude toward physical education, knowledge of physical activity and fitness, and active living behaviors (i.e., physical activity and sedentary behavior). The sixth, seventh, and eighth graders of a midwestern state school (n = 397) and a deep southern state school (n = 350) completed the surveys (N = 747). Results: The authors observed statistically significant school differences in physical activity and fitness knowledge and physical activity behavior (favoring the deep southern state school), and in attitude and sedentary behavior (favoring the midwestern state school). The authors also found stronger associations between attitude and physical activity (but weaker associations between attitude and sedentary behavior) among the deep southern state school students than the midwestern state school students. Conclusion: These observed performance differences and their pedagogical ramifications are discussed in relation to sociodemographic and environmental factors.

Open access

Kristin Suorsa, Anna Pulakka, Tuija Leskinen, Jaana Pentti, Andreas Holtermann, Olli J. Heinonen, Juha Sunikka, Jussi Vahtera and Sari Stenholm

Background: The accuracy of wrist-worn accelerometers in identifying sedentary time has been scarcely studied in free-living conditions. The aim of this study was to compare daily sedentary time estimates between a thigh-worn accelerometer, which measured sitting and lying postures, and a wrist-worn accelerometer, which measured low levels of movement. Methods: The study population consisted of 259 participants (M age = 62.8 years, SD = 0.9) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA). Participants wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their mid-thigh and an Actigraph wActiSleep-BT accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist simultaneously for a minimum of 4 days in free-living conditions. Two definitions to estimate daily sedentary time were used for data from the wrist-worn accelerometer: 1) the count cutpoint, ≤1853 counts per minute; and 2) the Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) cutpoint, <30 mg. Results: Compared to the thigh-worn accelerometer, daily sedentary time estimate was 63 min (95% confidence interval [CI] = −53 to −73) lower by the count cutpoint and 50 min (95% CI = 34 to 67) lower by the ENMO cutpoint. The limits of agreement in daily sedentary time estimates between the thigh- and cutpoint methods for wrist-worn accelerometers were wide (the count cutpoint: −117 to 243, the ENMO cutpoint: −212 to 313 min). Conclusions: Currently established cutpoint-based methods to estimate sedentary time from wrist-worn accelerometers result in underestimation of daily sedentary time compared to posture-based estimates of thigh-worn accelerometers. Thus, sedentary time estimates obtained from wrist-worn accelerometers using currently available cutpoint-based methods should be interpreted with caution and future work is needed to improve their accuracy.

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

To test Bernstein’s degrees of freedom (DF) hypothesis, the authors analyzed the effect of practice on the DF control and interjoint coordination of a Taekwondo kick. Thirteen inexperienced and 11 expert Taekwondo practitioners were evaluated. Contrary to Bernstein’s hypothesis, the inexperienced group froze the DF at the end of learning, reducing the joint range of motion of the knee. Moderate and strong cross-correlations between joints did not change, demonstrating that the interjoint coordination was maintained. The inexperienced group’s movement pattern was similar to that of the group of experts, from the beginning of the learning process. Thus, even after years of practice, experts continue to explore the strategy of freezing DF. The DF freeing/freezing sequence strategy was explored during the learning process, suggesting that DF-freezing/freeing strategies are task dependent.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour and Keith Davids

The incidence of falling, due to aging, is related to both personal and environmental factors. There is a clear need to understand the nature of the major risk factors and design features of a safe and navigable living environment for potential fallers. The aim of this scoping review was to identify studies that have examined the effectiveness of environments, which promote physical activity and have an impact on falls prevention. Selected studies were identified and categorized into four main topics: built environment, environment modifications, enriched environments, and task constraints. The results of this analysis showed that there are a limited number of studies aiming to enhance dynamic postural stability and fall prevention through designing more functional environments. This scoping review study suggests that the design of interventions and the evaluation of an environment to support fall prevention are topics for future research.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Focused Clinical Question: Does a passive stretching protocol, whether immediate or long-term, improve range of motion and decrease posterior shoulder tightness in overhead athletes? Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate level 2 evidence to support the incorporation of passive stretching for overhead athletes to increase range of motion or decrease posterior shoulder tightness.

Open access

Andreas M. Kasper, S. Andy Sparks, Matthew Hooks, Matthew Skeer, Benjamin Webb, Houman Nia, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

Rugby is characterized by frequent high-intensity collisions, resulting in muscle soreness. Players consequently seek strategies to reduce soreness and accelerate recovery, with an emerging method being cannabidiol (CBD), despite anti-doping risks. The prevalence and rationale for CBD use in rugby has not been explored; therefore, we recruited professional male players to complete a survey on CBD. Goodness of fit chi-square (χ2) was used to assess CBD use between codes and player position. Effects of age on use were determined using χ2 tests of independence. Twenty-five teams provided 517 player responses. While the majority of players had never used CBD (p < .001, V = 0.24), 26% had either used it (18%) or were still using it (8%). Significantly more CBD use was observed in rugby union compared with rugby league (p = .004, V = 0.13), but player position was not a factor (p = .760, V = 0.013). CBD use increased with players’ age (p < .001, V = 0.28), with mean use reaching 41% in the players aged 28 years and older category (p < .0001). The players using CBD primarily used the Internet (73%) or another teammate (61%) to obtain information, with only 16% consulting a nutritionist. The main reasons for CBD use were improving recovery/pain (80%) and sleep (78%), with 68% of players reporting a perceived benefit. These data highlight the need for immediate education on the risks of CBD, as well as the need to explore the claims regarding pain and sleep.

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M. Spencer Cain, Kyeongtak Song, J. Troy Blackburn, Kimmery Migel and Erik A. Wikstrom

Ankle joint mobilization has been shown to be effective at improving outcomes in those with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the neuromuscular mechanisms are still unknown. We aimed to determine the immediate effect of a single Grade III anterior-to-posterior ankle joint mobilization bout on ankle musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) in those with CAI. Seventeen CAI participants had plantar flexor and fibularis MTS assessed before and after a 5-min joint mobilization treatment. MTS outcomes were estimated using the damped oscillation method. Fibularis (0.25 ± 0.41 N/m/kg, p = .028) but not plantar flexor MTS (−2.18 ± 14.35 N/m/kg, p = .539) changed following mobilization and exceeded the calculated minimal detectable change score (0.12 N/m/kg). Increased fibularis MTS may represent a neuromuscular mechanism by which ankle joint mobilizations improve postural control in those with CAI.

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William Boyer, James Churilla, Amy Miller, Trevor Gillum and Marshare Penny

Background: The effects of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscular strengthening activity (MSA) on all-cause mortality risk need further exploration among ethnically diverse populations. Purpose: To examine potential effect modification of race-ethnicity on meeting the PA guidelines and on all-cause mortality. Methods: The study sample (N = 14,384) included adults (20–79 y of age) from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PA was categorized into 6 categories based on the 2018 PA guidelines: category 1 (inactive), category 2 (insufficient PA and no MSA), category 3 (active and no MSA), category 4 (no PA and sufficient MSA), category 5 (insufficient PA and sufficient MSA), and category 6 (meeting both recommendations). Race-ethnic groups examined included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Cox-proportional hazard models were used. Results: Significant risk reductions were found for categories 2, 3, and 6 for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black. Among Mexican American, significant risk reductions were found in category 6. Conclusion: In support of the 2018 PA guidelines, meeting both the aerobic PA and MSA guidelines significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality independent of race-ethnicity. The effects of aerobic PA alone seem to be isolated to non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.