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Okseon Lee, Euichang Choi, Victoria Goodyear, Mark Griffiths, Hyukjun Son, Hyunsoo Jung and Wonhee Lee

Although physical education (PE) teachers have increased access to digital/online continuous professional development activities, there are few robust accounts of how they engage with and experience these environments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine PE teachers’ participation patterns within self-directed online PE continuous professional development activities using mobile instant messenger. Methods: Data were generated from (a) 5,246 messages exchanged in the mobile instant messenger chatroom from 281 teachers, (b) semistructured interviews with 10 teachers, and (c) 1,275 messages posted by the 10 interviewed teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed for measures of central tendency, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively. Findings: Five patterns of PE teachers’ usage of mobile instant messenger were identified: (a) ringmasters, (b) passive uploaders, (c) active uploaders, (d) requesters, and (e) bystanders. Discussion: The findings suggest that each engagement pattern illustrates the differential goals of learning, types of interaction, and forms of participation by teachers engaged in online continuous professional development.

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Christa Spicer and Daniel B. Robinson

Feelings of isolation have long been found to be experienced by many teachers, particularly by those within some specialist disciplines, including physical education (PE). The potential effects of teacher isolation are undesirable and plentiful. They include a lessening of interest in one’s work, burnout, and/or an absence of community connection. Given the uniqueness of their discipline, PE teachers may especially be impacted by the following: Their discipline is “low status” and marginalized, they are frequently both physically and psychologically isolated from their peers, and they often are one of very few PE specialists in a school. Given these sorts of unique challenges for PE teachers, the authors undertook a scoping review of literature in order to gather and provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of peer-reviewed literature related to PE teachers and isolation, as well as offer implications for PE research and practice.

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Hans Ponnet, Hans Vangrunderbeek and Liam McCarthy

As large-scale coach education programs receive a growing amount of attention and investment (e.g., human and financial resources), the case for increased understanding of their impact is a pressing matter. In this paper, the authors outlined the creation of the Flemish Interactive Coaching Monitoring System (FICOMS) within the Flemish School for Coach Education (Belgium). The FICOMS is a data warehouse consisting of multiple databases, which was set up in 2019 to integrate data on coach education and coach certifications (1960–present), active coaches within club-organized sports (2014–present) and sport clubs, sports participants, and sports infrastructure. The FICOMS provides a variety of interactive and externally facing dashboards with useful statistics on coach education and coaching in Flanders. For example, the evolution of dropout ratios of qualified versus nonqualified coaches in sports clubs and sports federations can be identified, as well as the evolution of the percentage of qualified coaches in a specific sport, sports federation, or gender, or regional differences. By describing the main characteristics of FICOMS and sharing some emerging insights and early possibilities, the authors aimed to clarify the potential of this information technology for different stakeholders, such as governments, policymakers, sports federations, Olympic committees, education partners, municipalities, and researchers.

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Jessica J. Ferguson and Nancy L.I. Spencer

Women within parasport experience discrimination due to marginalization associated with gender and disability. In this study, the authors gain the insights of women parasport athletes about the affordances and constraints to inclusion with an emphasis on the role of coaches, using an ecological approach. Guided by qualitative description, the authors conducted individual and focus group interviews with ten women experiencing disability to explore their experiences and perspectives of inclusion in parasport. Two primary themes were identified: (a) within parasport and (b) beyond parasport, emphasizing the critical role of relationships with coaches and athletes to experiences of inclusion. The discussion highlights the multilevel influences and specific barriers that challenge inclusion, such as few numbers of women athletes, the need for coach expertise, and co-ed playing environments. In doing so, the authors also offer specific recommendations for coaching in women’s parasport.

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Kasper Salin, Anna Kankaanpää, Xiaolin Yang, Tuija H. Tammelin, Costan G. Magnussen, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari and Mirja Hirvensalo

Background: To examine if major life changes over a 4-year period among 34- to 49-year-old adults (mean = 41.8, SD = 5.0) were associated with a change in physical activity in men (37.7%) and women (62.3%). Methods: Daily steps and aerobic steps (steps that lasted for at least 10 min without interruption at a pace of >60 steps/min) were collected from 1051 participants in 2007 and 2011. Changes in marital status, work status, and residence and the birth of a child were determined from both time points. A latent change score model was used to examine mean changes in daily total steps, aerobic steps, and nonaerobic steps (total steps minus aerobic steps). Results: Women who had a first child in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .001). Men who divorced in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .020), whereas women who recoupled decreased their total steps (P = .030). Conclusions: Counseling for parents having a first child on how to increase physical activity in their everyday life could potentially have an influence on an individual’s physical activity.

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Bin Chen, Lifen Liu, Lincoln Bin Chen, Xianxin Cao, Peng Han, Chenhao Wang and Qi Qi

Context: Measuring isometric shoulder rotational strength is clinically important for evaluating motor disability in athletes with shoulder injuries. Recent evidence suggests that handheld dynamometry may provide a low-cost and portable method for the clinical assessment of isometric shoulder strength. Objective: To investigate the concurrent validity and the intrarater and interrater reliability of handheld dynamometry for measuring isometric shoulder rotational strength. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-nine young, healthy participants. Main Outcome Measures: The peak isometric strength of the internal rotators and external rotators, measured by handheld dynamometry (in newton) and isokinetic dynamometry (in newton meter). Interventions: Maximal isometric shoulder rotational strength was measured as participants lay supine with 90° shoulder abduction, neutral rotation, 90° elbow flexion, and forearm pronation. Measurements were performed independently by 2 different physiotherapists and in 3 different sessions to evaluate interrater and intrarater reliability. The data obtained by handheld dynamometry were compared with those obtained by isokinetic testing to evaluate concurrent validity. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability in measuring maximum isometric shoulder external and internal rotation strength were .914 (95% confidence interval [CI], .842–.954) and .842 (95% CI, .720–.914), respectively. The intrarater reliability values of the method for measuring maximal shoulder external and internal rotation strength were 0.865 (95% CI, 0.757–0.927) and 0.901 (95% CI, 0.820–0.947), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the handheld and isokinetic dynamometer measurements were .792 (95% CI, .575–.905) for external rotation strength and .664 (95% CI, .419–.839) for internal rotation strength. Conclusions: The handheld dynamometer showed good to excellent reliability and moderate to good validity in measuring maximum isometric shoulder rotational strength. Therefore, handheld dynamometry could be acceptable for health and sports professionals in field situations to evaluate maximum isometric shoulder rotational strength.

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Noh Zulfikri, Victor S. Selvanayagam and Ashril Yusof

Context: Badminton continues to be a highly competitive sport where training is introduced at an early age and load has intensified. This exposes players to a greater risk of injuries, in particular when assessing related training outcomes such as strength, agonist–antagonist ratio, and bilateral deficit among adolescents where age- and sex-associated growth and development should be considered. Objective: To evaluate strength profile of the upper and lower limbs among adolescent elite Malaysian badminton players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Forty-eight asymptomatic athletes (24 males and 24 females) were grouped into early and late adolescence (13–14 y old and 15–17 y old, respectively). Main Outcome Measure(s): Strength (absolute and normalized) of the external/internal rotators of the shoulder and flexor/extensor of the knee and strength derivatives, conventional strength ratio (CSR), dynamic control ratio (DCR), and bilateral deficits were measured. Results: Males showed greater strength in all strength indices (P < .05). The older group had greater strength compared to younger for most of the upper and lower limb indices (P < .05); these effects diminished when using normalized data. For females, there was no age group effect in the shoulder and knee strength. All players displayed lower shoulder and knee normative values for CSR and DCR. Dominant and non-dominant knee strength were comparable between sex and age groups. Conclusions: For males, growth and maturation had a greater contribution to strength gained compared to training, whereas for females, growth, maturation, and training did not improve strength. The normalized data indicated that training did not improve all indices measured apart from external rotator strength in females. All players also displayed lower normative values of CSR and DCR. These results suggest that training in elite adolescent Malaysian badminton players lacks consideration of strength gain and injury risk factors.

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John F. Gaski

Over the past 3 decades or so, some variation and revision have been introduced into the recording, reporting, and interpretation of the prime historical benchmark of individual golf achievement: number of established major tournaments won. In the interest of accuracy, consistency, and even equity, some analytic record-keeping suggestions are proffered here, based on coherence and logic, toward presenting the history of golf’s major championships in the fairest possible way. Idiosyncrasies of that historical sequence mean that the resolution is not obvious and more taxonomic work remains to be done. However, acceptance of the principles and conventions proposed herein may move the golf history culture and even basic golf chronicling closer to advantageous closure. One competitive implication of this reanalysis applies, significantly, to the total of “majors” won by historical greats Jack Nicklaus, Bobby Jones, and Tiger Woods.

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Akira Saito, Kyoji Okada, Hiromichi Sato, Kazuyuki Shibata and Tetsuaki Kamata

Context: Baseball pitching is a coordinated movement involving the spine. A previous study indicated that increased thoracic kyphosis angle in a standing position was a risk factor for medial elbow injuries in youth baseball players. However, spinal alignments in single-leg standing and their relationships with medial elbow injuries, scapular alignment, or hip joint range of motion are unclear. Objective: To examine the difference in spinal alignment between standing and single-leg standing positions in youth baseball players and analyze their relationship with elbow injuries, scapular alignment, or hip joint range of motion. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: There were 51 youth baseball players with medial epicondylar fragmentation (medial elbow injury group) and 102 healthy youth baseball players (control group). Main Outcome Measures: Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and trunk inclination angles during standing and single-leg standing, forward scapular posture, and hip joint range of motion. Results: In the single-leg standing position, the thoracic kyphosis and backward trunk inclination angles were significantly higher in the medial elbow injury group than in the control group (P = .016 and P = .046, respectively). In the standing position, no significant difference was observed between both groups. The thoracic kyphosis angle in single-leg standing was positively correlated with the bilateral forward scapular posture in the medial elbow injury (P = .008 and P < .001 on the throwing and nonthrowing sides, respectively) and control (P = .010 and P = .032 on the throwing and nonthrowing sides, respectively) groups. Conclusions: High thoracic kyphosis and backward trunk inclination angles are characteristics during single-leg standing in youth baseball players with medial elbow injuries. Spinal alignment measurement in single-leg standing may be useful for identifying youth baseball players who are at risk for sustaining medial elbow injury.