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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Thaís Reichert, Vitória Bones and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: There are a lack of clinical trials with suitable methodological quality that compare aquatic exercise training types in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. This study aimed to compare the effects of aerobic and combined aquatic training on cardiorespiratory outcomes in patients with T2D. Methods: Untrained patients with T2D were randomized to receive an aerobic aquatic training, a combined aquatic training, or a procedure control in 3 weekly sessions for 15 weeks. The sessions were 50 minutes long. The intensities were from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold and at maximal velocity for aerobic and resistance parts, respectively. Resting heart rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and its relation with VO2peak were evaluated. Results: Participants were 59.0 (8.2) years old and 51% women. Intervention groups increased in VO2peak (aerobic aquatic training group: 4.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .004; combined aquatic training group: 5.27 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .006) and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold, whereas the control group presented an increase in oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and minimal change in VO2peak. Conclusions: Aerobic and combined aquatic exercise interventions improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of patients with T2D.

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Julia Limmeroth and Norbert Hagemann

Using an evaluative priming procedure, this study tested whether automatic evaluations of running differ among groups based on their amount of exercise and whether they were runners or not. Ninety-five participants (26 ± 5.06 years; 46% female) were divided into five groups: an inactive group, active exercisers, highly active exercisers, active runners, and highly active runners. A priming effect score was calculated based on the concept of response facilitation or inhibition: the reaction is faster when the target and prime are valence congruent and becomes slower if they are incongruent. The highly active runner group differed significantly from the inactive group (p < .01) and from the active exerciser group (p < .05). Furthermore, reflective evaluations were measured via questionnaires. The results show that priming effect scores can detect automatic evaluations of running, and they differ not only because of the amounts of physical exercise but also because of their preferred type of exercise.

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Jessica Gugusheff, Bridget C. Foley, Katherine B. Owen, Bradley Drayton, Ding Ding, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Charlotte Lund Rasmussen, Adrian E. Bauman and Margaret Thomas

Background: A combination of walking, other moderate physical activity, and vigorous physical activity is recommended for achieving good health. Vigorous activity has unique health benefits but may be less accessible to disadvantaged people. To reduce health inequity, we need to understand the differences in physical activity participation among socioeconomic subgroups and whether this is changing over time. Methods: Data from the 2002 to 2015 Adult New South Wales Population Health Surveys (164,652 responses) were analyzed to investigate trends in walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity participation by socioeconomic status as measured by educational attainment. Analysis used age- and sex-adjusted multivariable linear models that accounted for complex survey design. Results: In 2002, the highest socioeconomic group spent 18.5 (95% confidence interval, 8.2–28.8) minutes per week more than the lowest socioeconomic group being vigorously active. By 2015, this gap had steadily increased to 41.4 (95% confidence interval, 27.6–55.1) minutes per week. Inequity between groups was also found for duration of moderate activity but not for time spent walking. Conclusions: Low participation in vigorous activity in the lowest socioeconomic group is likely driving increasing inequities in physical activity and widening participation gaps over time. Barriers preventing the most disadvantaged people in New South Wales from engaging in vigorous activity should be addressed urgently.

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Lindsay Parks Pieper

At specific moments in history, women publicly entered the masculine realm of baseball to advance female suffrage in the United States. Girls and women took to the field in the nineteenth century, enjoying newfound bodily freedoms and disrupting Victorian constraints. While their performances may not have always translated into explicit suffrage activism, their athleticism demonstrated strength at a time when many people used women’s supposed weakness as an argument against their political enfranchisement. However, as the popularity of baseball increased at the turn of the century, the number of female ballplayers decreased. Activism in the sport therefore changed. In the mid-1910s, suffragists advertised at men’s baseball games. The women recognized the value of promoting suffrage through sport; yet, they also acknowledged that by entering ballparks, they entered a male space. Suffragists therefore exhibited conventional White gender norms to avoid aggrieving male voters. Women’s different engagements with baseball, as either players or spectators, had varying consequences for women’s political and sporting emancipation. Women’s physical activism in baseball demonstrated female prowess and strength in sport, but only abstractly advanced women’s political rights; suffragists’ promotional efforts through men’s baseball more directly influenced the eventual passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, but their actions supported women’s position on the sidelines.

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Luciana Zuest

This study explored the daily life physical activity (PA) experiences of 11 adolescent girls living in a rural community in the Northwest of the United States. This qualitative study employed visual methods to explore adolescent girls’ PA experiences in their daily lives. Specifically, this study used visual diaries and photo-elicitation interviews to capture girls’ PA experiences. Data from this study revealed two distinct PA patterns among the 11 participants: casual movers and sporty girls. Casual movers have a much less structured approach to PA. They engage in a wide variety of PA types—mostly individual forms of PA and PA geared towards recreation. They describe fun, enjoyment, and task mastery as their main motivations to be physically active. Casual movers often engage in PA with family members and are compelled to be active outdoors and in their homes or neighborhoods. In contrast, all five sporty girls belong to competitive sports teams and have a more structured PA routine. They seek performance improvement and have high perceptions of physical competence. Sporty girls value being active with their teammates and receive strong support from their families in the form of encouragement, role modeling, and financial/structural assistance. Sporty girls feel confident being active in their schools’ fields, courts, and gymnasiums, but also appreciate the outdoors environment. Findings from this study support the need for schools to increase access to PA opportunities that are not focused on skill or fitness performance, thus appealing to casual movers’ approach to physical movement.

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Nathanael C.H. Ong

Singaporean footballer Ben Davis applied for deferment from national service (NS) in order to pursue his dream of playing in the English Premier League. However, his deferment request was rejected by the Ministry of Defense, and there was a sizable national debate on whether Davis should be granted the deferment. The study sought to use the Ben Davis saga as a case study to provide an exploration of public opinion toward various issues relating to sport and society. A total of 14,093 comments were extracted from various news sources on Facebook, and a randomized sample of 1,875 comments was used for the final analysis. The constant comparative methodology was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the comments. The analysis produced four higher order themes: (a) sport in Singapore, (b) role and relevance of NS, (c) national interest versus individual choice, and (d) perception of new citizens and foreign talent.

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Shaima Alothman, Jeffrey C. Hoover, Mohammed M. Alshehri, Aqeel M. Alenazi, Jo Wick, Joseph LeMaster, Jason Rucker and Patricia M. Kluding

Background: To investigate how changes in sedentary behavior relate to health outcomes, it is important to establish the test–retest reliability of activity monitors in measuring habitual sedentary behavior in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a prerequisite for interpreting this information. Thus, the authors’ objective was to examine the test–retest reliability of a common activity monitor (activPAL) in measuring sedentary behavior and physical activity in people with T2D. Methods: Sedentary-time, standing-time, stepping-time, step-count, and sit-to-stand transitions were obtained from two 7-day assessment periods separated by at least 1 week. Test–retest reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to compare sedentary and activity measures between the 2 time points. Results: A total of 30 participants with self-reported T2D completed the study (age 65 [6] y, 63% women, body mass index 33.3 [5] kg/m2). High test–retest reliability was found for sedentary-time (ICC = .79; 95% confidence interval [CI], .61–.89) and standing-time (ICC = .74; 95% CI, .53–.87). Very high test–retest reliability was found for stepping-time (ICC = .90; 95% CI, .81–.95), step-count (ICC = .91; 95% CI, .83–.96), and sit-to-stand transitions (ICC = .90; 95% CI, .79–.95). Conclusion: The activPAL device showed high to very high test–retest reliability in measuring all tested activity categories in people with T2D.

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Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit

Background: To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and inhibition in boys and girls with motor impairments compared with children with typical development. Methods: The participants were 58 (26 motor impairments and 32 typical development) children aged 7–12 years who met the inclusion criteria. PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. The time spent in PA of different intensity levels (light, moderate, and vigorous) were analyzed for weekdays and weekends. Using a visuospatial attention paradigm, inhibition was evaluated by the difference in reaction time between invalid and valid cue conditions. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the associations of inhibition with PA and motor ability by sex. Results: Boys and children with typical development had shorter reaction times in inhibition than girls (P < .001) and children with motor impairments (P < .05), respectively. Motor ability (b = 189.98) and vigorous PA on weekdays (b = −43.18) were significant predictors of inhibition in girls only. Conclusions: The results indicate a positive relationship between vigorous PA (on weekdays) and inhibition in children (girls), moderated by sex and motor ability. Effective interventions that promote vigorous PA for children both in and out of school should be designed to foster their executive function development.

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Isao Saito, Koutatsu Maruyama, Tadahiro Kato, Yasunori Takata, Kiyohide Tomooka, Ryoichi Kawamura, Yuichi Uesugi, Yoshihiko Naito, Haruhiko Osawa and Takeshi Tanigawa

Background: Autonomic activity is possibly influenced by physical activity (PA). However, it remains unclear whether this association is modified by insulin resistance. Methods: This population-based study between 2009 and 2012 included 2016 men and women aged 30–79 years. The PA was assessed using a validated questionnaire based on sleep, occupation, transportation, household characteristics, and leisure-time PA. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in the sitting position were determined from 5-minute recordings of pulse waves detected by a fingertip sensor. The HRV was calculated as frequency (standard deviation of normal-to-normal [NN] intervals [SDNN]), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and percentage differences between normal NN intervals >50 milliseconds [pNN50]) and time domains. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). Results: HR, RMSSD, and pNN50 were related to the total and moderate/vigorous PA tertiles in models that included HOMA-IR. The partial regression coefficient of total PA per 1-SD increase was .05 (P = .019) for log-transformed RMSSD and 1.86 (P = .001) for pNN50. No interactive associations were observed between PA and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Low total PA was associated with increased HR and low levels of RMSSD and pNN50, reflecting parasympathetic modulation that was not modified by insulin resistance.

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Werner de Andrade Müller, Grégore Iven Mielke, Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Mariangela F. Silveira and Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

Background: Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is associated with several benefits in maternal and child outcomes, and its relationship with preterm birth is still conflicting. This study aims to examine the associations between PA during pregnancy and occurrence of preterm birth. Methods: PA was assessed by questionnaire (for each trimester) and accelerometry (second trimester) in women enrolled in a birth cohort study that started during pregnancy and included births that occurred between January 1 and December 31, 2015. Gestational age was based on the last menstrual period and ultrasonography. All deliveries before 37 weeks of gestation were considered preterm births. A Poisson regression model was used to measure associations controlling for potential confounders. Results: PA information was available for 4163 women and 13.8% of births were preterm. A total of 15.8% of women were engaged in PA during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that only PA performed in the third trimester of pregnancy (prevalence ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.96) was associated with the outcome. Conclusions: PA performed in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with a protection to preterm birth. Pregnant women should be counseled to engage in PA to lower the risk of premature delivery.