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Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella and Michael Blair Evans

Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.

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Paul R. Hibbing, Samuel R. LaMunion, Haileab Hilafu and Scott E. Crouter

Background: Bout detection algorithms are used to segment data from wearable sensors, but it is challenging to assess segmentation correctness. The purpose of this study was to present and demonstrate the Transition Pairing Method (TPM), a new method for evaluating the performance of bout detection algorithms. Methods: The TPM compares predicted transitions to a criterion measure in terms of number and timing. A true positive is defined as a predicted transition that corresponds with one criterion transition in a mutually exclusive pair. The pairs are established using an extended Gale-Shapley algorithm, and the user specifies a maximum allowable within-pair time lag, above which pairs cannot be formed. Unpaired predictions and criteria are false positives and false negatives, respectively. The demonstration used raw acceleration data from 88 youth who wore ActiGraph GT9X monitors (right hip and non-dominant wrist) during simulated free-living. Youth Sojourn bout detection algorithms were applied (one for each attachment site), and the TPM was used to compare predicted bout transitions to the criterion measure (direct observation). Performance metrics were calculated for each participant, and hip-versus-wrist means were compared using paired t-tests (α = 0.05). Results: When the maximum allowable lag was 1-s, both algorithms had recall <20% (2.4% difference from one another, p < .01) and precision <10% (1.4% difference from one another, p < .001). That is, >80% of criterion transitions were undetected, and >90% of predicted transitions were false positives. Conclusion: The TPM improves on conventional analyses by providing specific information about bout detection in a standardized way that applies to any bout detection algorithm.

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Yong Yang, Sheng Li, Kai Zhang, Xiaoling Xiang, Zhigang Li, SangNam Ahn and James Murphy

Knowledge of how smartphone use in daily life, rather than in the context of intervention, may influence people’s behaviors and health is limited and mixed. The 2017 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data were used to examine the associations between daily smartphone use and several outcomes, including engaging in vigorous physical activity, self-perceived being healthy, and the adjusted mean differences for total trips and active travels among older adults (≥65 years) as well as among young and middle-aged groups (18–64 years), respectively. The prevalence of daily smartphone use declined with increasing age. Daily smartphone use was associated with increased total trips and active travel, a higher likelihood of engaging in vigorous physical activity, and in self-perceived being healthy status. The associations were stronger among older adults than young and middle-aged adults. More studies are needed to address the complex pathways among daily smartphone use and other outcomes. Daily smartphone use has the potential to address the unmet daily needs of older adults and bridge health disparities for this disadvantaged group.

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Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse

Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.

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ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse and XiangYun Liu

Benign prostatic hyperplasia and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms seriously affect both the physical and mental health of older men. In order to determine the efficiency of Chinese Qigong Yi Jin Jing on prostate health in older individuals, thirty participants were randomized into either an Yi Jin Jing group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). After the 6-month intervention, the Yi Jin Jing group showed a significant decrease in international prostate symptom score and a significant increase in maximal urinary flow rate (compared with the control group p = .005, p = .001, respectively). Also, testosterone level increased and estrogen/testosterone ratio decreased in the Yi Jin Jing group (compared with the baseline p = .004, p = .002, respectively); estrogen level and estrogen/testosterone ratio were lower in the Yi Jin Jing group (compared with the control group p = .029, p = .012, respectively). The results showed that Yi Jin Jing is a promising way to reduce the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia-lower urinary tract symptoms in older men.

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Shanelle Sorbello, Vu Quang Do, Anna Palagyi and Lisa Keay

This study examined the association between varying levels of visual acuity (VA) and physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery) in older adults. A cross-sectional analysis of participants aged ≥50 years with a clinical diagnosis of vision loss across two studies was undertaken. Of 434 (96%) participants with available VA data, 74% (320/434) had nil, 7% (32/434) had mild, 8% (33/434) had moderate, and 11% (49/434) had severe visual impairment. Poorer VA of both better and worse eye was found to be significantly associated with poorer standing balance (p = .006 and p = .004, respectively); worse VA of the better eye was significantly associated with increased number of steps per meter (p = .005). Mean total Short Physical Performance Battery score of this study population was lower than published normative data for this age group. Physical activity programs for older people with reduced VA should be targeted at improving balance and gait skills to reduce falls risk.

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Jordana Salma, Allyson Jones, Savera Aziz Ali, Bukola Salami and Shelby Yamamoto

Physical activity is essential for healthy aging; however, there has been little exploration of physical activity in Muslim older immigrants in Canada. Over one million Canadians identify as Muslim, the majority is first-generation immigrants, with increasing cohorts entering older age. A community-based participatory research project on healthy aging was conducted with 68 older adults and community members from South Asian, Arab, and African Muslim ethnocultural communities in a Canadian urban center. A combination of individual interviews and focus groups discussions were completed, followed by thematic analysis of data. Participating community groups emphasized the importance of physical activity in older age and prioritized the need for physical activity programs. The four themes highlight Muslim older immigrants’ perspectives on physical activity in Canada: (a) values and approaches to staying active; (b) health factors: pain and health limitations; (c) social factors: culture, religion, and belonging; and (d) environmental factors: safety and accessibility.

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Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue and Koichiro Oka

Background: The present study examined the cluster of domain-specific sedentary behaviors (SBs) and their associations with physical function among community-dwelling older adults to identify the target groups that require intervention for SBs. Methods: A total of 314 older adults who participated in a population-based cross-sectional survey and an on-site functional assessment in Matsudo City in Chiba participated in this study. Participants were asked to report the daily average of 6 domain-specific SBs. To identify the cluster of domain-specific SBs, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Analysis of covariance adjusted for sociodemographic factors, exercise habit, chronic disease, and total SB time was performed to examine the associations between each cluster and physical functional status. Results: The average age of the participants was 74.5 (5.2) years. The 4 clusters identified were leisure cluster, low cluster, work and personal computer use cluster, and television viewing cluster. The analysis of covariance adjusted for covariates showed that grip strength (P = .01), maximum walking speed (P = .03), and 1-leg standing time (P = .03) were significantly poorer in the television viewing cluster than other clusters. Conclusions: It has been concluded that the television viewing group identified as a high-risk group of physical functional decline; therefore, interventions targeting this group are needed to prevent physical functional decline.

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Inger Mechlenburg, Marianne Tjur and Kristian Overgaard

Background: High levels of sitting may have a negative impact on health. The aim of this study was to examine how sitting time varies between work and leisure time and to identify parameters associated with overall sitting time and prolonged sitting. Methods: In a total of 189 persons ≥18 years randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, sitting time was monitored with an accelerometer-based sensor mounted at the mid-thigh. Moreover, participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographics, work schedule, and general health. Data were processed using a custom built algorithm. Overall sitting was parametrized as mean % of time spent sitting and prolonged sitting as s (periods exceeding 30 minutes). Results: During working hours, the mean overall sitting time (49.2%) was significantly lower than during leisure time on both working days (60.6%, p < .0001) and on days off work (58.9%, p < .0001). For men, prolonged sitting was positively associated with age, while corresponding associations were negative among female participants (p = .01). Body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.06 kg/m2 for every % increase in prolonged sitting (p = .005). The odds ratio of reporting poor health was 1.05 for every % increase in overall sitting during leisure time on workdays (p = .005). Conclusions: Overall sitting time varies between work and leisure time. Prolonged sitting is positively associated with age for men and with BMI for both men and women.

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Eric J. Evans, Keith E. Naugle, Tyler Owen and Kelly M. Naugle

Whether active gaming is an appropriate method to facilitate moderate-intensity physical activity in older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intensity of physical activity and enjoyment while playing three active video games in older adults compared with younger adults. Ten younger and 10 older adults played three active games on separate days. Participants played two 15-min periods per game: one period at a self-selected intensity and one period with structured instructions to maximize the movement. Physical activity intensity and enjoyment were measured during gameplay. The results indicated that older adults played games at significantly higher intensities (5.3 + 1.8 vs. 3.6 + 1.8 metabolic equivalents), spent less time in whole-body sedentary activity, and rated games more enjoyable compared with younger adults. With physical activity intensity being consistent with moderate-to-vigorous intensity for older adults during gameplay, the results suggest that active video games could be used as a cardiovascular tool for older adults.