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Julie Freedman, Sally Hage and Paula A. Quatromoni

Male athletes are underrepresented in eating disorders research. This phenomenological study investigated the experiences of male athletes who self-identified as having an eating disorder, disordered eating, or compulsive exercise behaviors. Eight male collegiate athletes were interviewed, and qualitative analysis identified factors associated with the onset and maintenance of disordered behaviors. Among the novel findings was the salient influence of social media as a driver of body dissatisfaction and disordered behaviors. The participants described a perceived sense of control and feeling of pride associated with the use of behaviors, cultural norms in a male sport environment that sustained these behaviors, and a shared belief that, until they experienced a loss of control over their use of behaviors, they would not likely ask for help or seek treatment. These findings have implications for additional research, as well as individual and systems-level strategies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of eating and exercise disorders in male sport.

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Caroline Pereira Santos, Mahara Proença, Tamara dos Santos Gouveia, Crystian Bitencourt Soares de Oliveira, Guilherme Yassuki Tacao, Iara Buriola Trevisan, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos and Dionei Ramos

Background: The specific benefits of aerobic exercises in smoking cessation are unclear, as they have different characteristics, intensities, and durations. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise, with or without co-interventions, compared with a control group of cognitive behavior treatment on smoking cessation. Methods: This review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO, and the searches were performed from 2016 to 2018. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of aerobic exercise, with or without nicotine therapy replacement, compared with usual care were included. The primary outcome was smoking cessation defined as the prevalence of those who quit or continuous abstinence. Meta-analysis was calculated using random effects model in the comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: The authors identified 18 trials reporting data for a total of 2815 participants. There was moderate-quality evidence that aerobic exercise was better than usual care in promoting smoking cessation at short term (11 trials, risk ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–0.94). However, there were no differences between aerobic exercises and usual care at medium- or long-term follow-ups. Conclusions: According to review, aerobic exercise may be effective in promoting smoking cessation at short-term, but not at medium- and long-term follow-ups.

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Antje Ullrich, Sophie Baumann, Lisa Voigt, Ulrich John and Sabina Ulbricht

Background: The purposes of this study were to examine accelerometer measurement reactivity (AMR) in sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and accelerometer wear time in 2 measurement periods and to quantify AMR as a human-related source of bias for the reproducibility of SB and PA estimates. Methods: In total, 136 participants (65% women, mean age = 54.6 y) received 7-day accelerometry at the baseline and after 12 months. Latent growth models were used to identify AMR. Intraclass correlations were calculated to examine the reproducibility using 2-level mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results: Within each 7-day accelerometry assessment, the participants increased their time spent in SB (b = 2.4 min/d; b = 3.8 min/d) and reduced their time spent in light PA (b = −2.0 min/d; b = −3.2 min/d), but did not change moderate to vigorous PA. The participants reduced their wear time (b = −5.2 min/d) only at the baseline. The intraclass correlations ranged from .42 for accelerometer wear time to .74 for SB. The AMR was not identified as a source of bias in any regression model. Conclusions: AMR may influence SB and PA estimates differentially. Although 7-day accelerometry seems to be a reproducible measure, our findings highlight accelerometer wear time as a crucial confounder in analyzing SB and PA data.

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Matthew D. Bird, Eadie E. Simons and Patricia C. Jackman

Mental toughness has been associated with factors related to psychological well-being, but little is known about its relationship with stigma toward mental health and mental health help-seeking. This study investigated the relationship between mental toughness, sport-related well-being, and personal stigma toward mental health in a sample of 154 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes. The moderating effect of mental toughness on the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma toward mental health help-seeking was also explored. Mental toughness was significantly and positively associated with sport-related well-being, but not significantly related to personal stigma toward mental health. Moderation analysis indicated that mental toughness was not a significant moderator of the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma, but higher levels of mental toughness were significantly associated with lower levels of stigma toward mental health help-seeking. Building mental toughness may be a way to increase well-being and to reduce stigma toward help-seeking in student-athletes.

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Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Roberto Acosta-Dighero, Nicolás Sepúlveda-Cáceres, Marisol Barros-Poblete, Homero Puppo, Roberto Vera-Uribe, Jordi Vilaró and Mario Herrera-Romero

Background: The literature is unclear as to whether children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) differ from their healthy peers in physical activity (PA). Objective: To determine the PA levels measured through accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review using five databases. The authors included studies that assessed the PA measured by accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Results: From 11,497 reports returned by the initial search, 29 articles reporting on 4381 patients were included. In the sensitivity analysis, the authors found that children and adolescents with CRDs had a moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) of −0.08 hours per day (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.12 to −0.03 h/d; P = .001), which was lower than the healthy controls; the values for sedentary time (mean difference −0.47 h/d; 95% CI, −1.29 to 0.36 h/d; P = .27) and steps/d (mean difference 361 steps/d; 95% CI −385 to 1707 steps/d; P = .45) were similar for both. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CRDs have a slight reduction in MVPA in comparison with healthy controls, but sedentary time and steps/d were similar for both.

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Luca Filipas, Davide Ferioli, Giuseppe Banfi, Antonio La Torre and Jacopo Antonino Vitale

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the single and combined effects of sleep restriction (SR) and mental fatigue (MF) on free-throw (FT) performance among adult male basketball players. Methods: A total of 19 amateur male basketball players performed, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover order, 2 identical experimental sessions separated by an interval of 1 week. The difference between the 2 sessions was in the quantity of sleep the night before the sessions, as follows: in one case, the participants followed their habitual sleep–wake routines; in the other session, they were forced to sleep not more than 5 hours. During the experimental sessions, the participants performed 60 basketball FTs on 2 occasions, separated by watching a basketball tactical video for 30 minutes designed to induce MF. As such, the FT test was completed in 4 different conditions: control, MF, SR, and SR and MF combined. Results: The participants registered a significantly lower total sleep time in acute SR (P < .001). The subjective rating of MF was lower in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P < .001). There were no differences between conditions for the subjective ratings of motivation. FT accuracy was higher in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P = .010), while no differences were observed between the 3 experimental conditions (all P > .05). Conclusion: The results indicate that a combined effect of MF and SR induces a small reduction in basketball FT performance, similar to MF or SR alone.

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Daniel J. McDonough, Wenxi Liu, Xiwen Su and Zan Gao

Background: The effects of school-based exergaming interventions on adolescents’ physical activity (PA) and psychosocial outcomes have been mixed. Researchers speculate this may be attributed to design issues. Therefore, this study examined differences in urban minority adolescents’ PA, enjoyment, and self-efficacy during small-groups and full-class exergaming. Methods: Forty-seven urban minority adolescents (83% black; X¯age=11.8+1.3y) completed two 15-minute exergaming sessions on the Xbox One Kinect Just Dance: (1) small groups (n = 3–4) and (2) full class (n = 23–24). Participants’ time in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA and steps were retrieved from ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers with enjoyment and self-efficacy assessed using validated surveys. Results: Participants spent significantly more time in sedentary behavior (5.9 [5.2] min vs 3.5 [2.7] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.57) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (2.1 [2.8] min vs 5.5 [2.2] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.85) during the full-class versus the small-groups session. Moreover, small-groups exergaming resulted in significantly higher steps than the full-class exergaming (504.2 [132.1] vs 387.8 [122.1], respectively: P = .01, d = 0.50) and significantly greater enjoyment (3.5 [1.1] vs 3.2 [1.0], respectively: P = .02, d = 0.37). There were no significant differences between sessions for time in light PA and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Small-groups exergaming appears ideal for promoting enjoyable PA at higher intensities and lower sedentary time in underserved minority adolescents.

Open access

Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason and Robert Morris

The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of specific symptoms of depression in athletes and to test differences in the likelihood of athletes exhibiting these symptoms across age, sex, type of team sport, and level of competition. A sample of Icelandic male and female team sport athletes (N = 894, 18–42 years) was included in the study. Of the athletes exhibiting clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 37.5% did not exhibit core symptoms of depression. Compared with males, females were significantly more likely to exhibit depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, and problems with sleep, fatigue, appetite, and concentration. Within males, differences were mostly related to neurovegetative aspects of depression (sleep and appetite), whereas in females, differences were related to cognitive/emotional aspects (e.g., depressed mood, guilt/worthlessness). The findings underline the importance of exploring specific symptoms of depression to provide a richer understanding of depressive symptomology in athletes.

Open access

Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim and Brijesh Thapa

Background: The examination of the longitudinal effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on mental well-being is important, but previous studies have typically been limited by their use of a cross-sectional approach. This study empirically examined how LTPA intensity was associated with changes in distinct functions of mental well-being (eg, emotional, psychological, social) over time, and vice versa. Methods: Parallel latent growth curve modeling in combination with propensity score matching analysis was conducted. Data were derived from a sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. Results: The results showed that the initial level of moderate LTPA at the baseline was associated with growth in psychological and social functioning over time, and vice versa. However, vigorous LTPA at the baseline was related only to growth in emotional functioning over time. Conclusion: The longitudinal association between LTPA and mental well-being had different matching mechanisms for LTPA intensities and their relation to distinct functioning for mental well-being. The findings contribute to an enhanced understanding of LTPA’s longitudinal effect on mental well-being.

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John H. Challis

The results of the 2020 review and ranking of U.S. doctoral programs in kinesiology conducted by the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) are presented. These results represent data collected for the  2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 calendar years for 43 programs. The rankings reflect data collected on program faculty (productivity, funding, and visibility) and program students (admissions, support, publications, and employment). The data for each assessment index were first transformed into z scores, and then the z scores converted into T-scores. Weights were applied to the T-scores of the indices and then summed to obtain a total T-score. Programs were ranked in two ways: one based on the total T-scores from the data not normalized (unadjusted) and the other with total T-scores from the data normalized with respect to the number of faculty members in each program (adjusted). In addition to program rankings, descriptive data are presented on faculty and student data.