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Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii and Takayuki Sako

For athletes to gain body mass, especially muscle, an increase in energy consumption is necessary. To increase their energy intake, many athletes consume more meals, including supplementary meals or snacks. However, the influence of meal frequency on changes in body composition and appetite is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of meal frequency on changes in body composition and appetite during weight gain in athletes through a well-controlled dietary intervention. Ten male collegiate rowers with weight gain goals were included in this study. The subjects were randomly classified into two groups, and dietary intervention was implemented using a crossover method. During the intervention period, all subjects were provided identical meals aimed to provide a positive energy balance. The meals were consumed at a frequency of either three times (regular frequency) or six times (high frequency) a day. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the visual analog scale was used for the evaluation of appetite. In both trials, body weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass significantly increased; however, an interaction (Trial × Time) was not observed. Visual analog scale did not vary between trials. Our data suggest that partitioning identical excess dietary intakes over three or six meals does not influence changes in body composition or appetite during weight gain in athletes.

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Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune and David B. Pyne

Purpose: The risk of exercise-induced endotoxemia is increased in the heat and is primarily attributable to changes in gut permeability resulting in the translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the acute changes in gut permeability and LPS translocation during submaximal continuous and high-intensity interval exercise under heat stress. Methods: A total of 12 well-trained male runners (age 37 [7] y, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 61.0 [6.8] mL·min−1·kg−1) undertook 2 treadmill runs of 2 × 15-minutes at 60% and 75% VO2max and up to 8 × 1-minutes at 95% VO2max in HOT (34°C, 68% relative humidity) and COOL (18°C, 57% relative humidity) conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at the baseline, following each running intensity, and 1 hour postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for markers of intestinal permeability (LPS, LPS binding protein, and intestinal fatty acid–binding protein). Results: The increase in LPS binding protein following each exercise intensity in the HOT condition was 4% (5.3 μg·mL−1, 2.4–8.4; mean, 95% confidence interval, P < .001), 32% (4.6 μg·mL−1, 1.8–7.4; P = .002), and 30% (3.0 μg·mL−1, 0.03–5.9; P = .047) greater than in the COOL condition. LPS was 69% higher than baseline following running at 75% VO2max in the HOT condition (0.2 endotoxin units·mL−1, 0.1–0.4; P = .011). Intestinal fatty acid–binding protein increased 43% (2.1 ng·mL−1, 0.1–4.2; P = .04) 1 hour postexercise in HOT compared with the COOL condition. Conclusions: Small increases in LPS concentration during exercise in the heat and subsequent increases in intestinal fatty acid–binding protein and LPS binding protein indicate a capacity to tolerate acute, transient intestinal disturbance in well-trained endurance runners.

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Corina van Doodewaard

Teachers are continually pressured to professionalize and to adopt measures that enhance inclusion and diversity. Professionalism can, however, have various meanings; each meaning has its own conceptualization of and approach to inclusion. The purpose of this paper is to explore how preservice teachers in physical education negotiate discourses about professionalism and how they attempt to use them to practice inclusion. Eleven Dutch preservice teachers participated in video-stimulated interviews and elaborated on their understandings of inclusion and diversity in physical education. By applying a Foucauldian lens to their understandings, the author reveals some of the complexities they encountered while being subjected to and/or positioned as agents in competing discursive practices of professionalism. The paper concludes by addressing the challenges generated from this work for future schooling practices and research in physical education teacher education.

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Ben D. Kern, Chad M. Killian, Douglas W. Ellison, Kim C. Graber, Elaine Belansky and Nicholas Cutforth

The purpose of this study was to determine how the research intervention called Healthy Eaters, Lifelong Movers (HELM) and associated San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy (SLVPEA) influenced teachers’ beliefs about physical education and the extent to which they sustained pedagogical changes over time. Seventeen physical educators who completed the 2-year intervention were interviewed 3 years later, and data collected during HELM/SLVPEA using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time were analyzed to create an individual change profile. Mean difference of System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time variables at baseline and postintervention was analyzed using dependent, paired-samples t tests, treating each participant as a separate case. Qualitative data were analyzed using a standard interpretive approach and constant comparison methodology. Teachers made significant changes during HELM/SLVPEA and maintained these changes 3 years later. Their beliefs about physical education were altered, and many reported feeling less marginalized. The provision of resources along with ongoing site support facilitated changes in beliefs and practice.

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John Lyle

Coaching effectiveness is a ubiquitous term in the sport coaching literature, yet it remains ill-defined and challenging to operationalize. This paper explores the concept and provides a polemic intended to generate discussion within the field. Effectiveness is a more nuanced concept than generally accepted and is best considered a superordinate concept that synthesizes other lower order concepts. Feature matching approaches are most common but provide, at best, a partial account of effective practice. This has also led to a focus on ineffective behavior. The simplistic notion of effectiveness as goal achievement is not as straightforward as it seems and in setting the bar too high, effectiveness has been equated with excellence. Effective coaching should imply that coaches have drawn on their expertise to harness appropriately the resources available in the context of environment and ambition. In this sense, effective coaching is a realizable goal for all coaches; it may or may not lead to performance success. It remains a useful “unifying label” for reasoning about sport coaching.

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International Sport Coaching Journal

DIGEST VOLUME 8, ISSUE #1

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Kelly Sarmiento, Dana Waltzman, Kelley Borradaile, Andrew Hurwitz, Kara Conroy and Jaimie Grazi

Due in part to concern about the potential long-term effects of concussion and repetitive head injuries in football, some programs have implemented tackling interventions. This paper explores youth football coaches’ perception of football safety and their experiences implementing these interventions aimed at athlete safety. Using a qualitative approach, coaches were interviewed by means of a semi-structured protocol that covered: (a) demographics; (b) background and experiences with contact sports; (c) perceived concussion risks and benefits of youth football; (d) experiences with tackling technique; (e) experiences with mouth guard sensors; and (f) personal sources of training related to football safety. Most coaches felt that learning tackling at a young age helped prepare them for their playing later in life and believed that youth should begin playing tackle football at a young age. Coaches were mixed regarding their concerns about the risk for concussion and subconcussive head impacts. Still, most were receptive to changes in rules and policies aimed at making football safer. Findings from this study demonstrate that youth football coaches are important stakeholders to consider when implementing changes to youth football. Understanding coach perceptions and experiences may inform future efforts aimed to educate coaches on rules and policies to make the game safer for youth athletes.

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Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek, Mhairi Keil, Katherine Brooke-Wavell and Alan M. Batterham

Purpose: To evaluate the tracking of within-athlete changes in criterion measures of whole-body fat percentage (BF%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) with skinfold thickness (Σ 4, 6, or 8) in wheelchair basketball players. Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived whole BF% and Σ 4, 6, or 8 skinfolds were obtained at 5 time points over 15 months (N = 16). A linear mixed model with restricted maximum likelihood (random intercept, with identity covariance structure) to derive the within-athlete prediction error for predicting criterion BF% from Σ skinfolds was used. This prediction error allowed us to evaluate how well a simple measure of the Σ skinfolds could track criterion changes in BF %; that is, the authors derived the change in Σ skinfolds that would have to be observed in an individual athlete to conclude that a substantial change in criterion BF% had occurred. Data were log-transformed prior to analysis. Results: The Σ 8 skinfolds was the most precise practical measure for tracking changes in BF%. For the monitoring of an individual player, a change in Σ 8 skinfolds by a factor of greater than 1.28 (multiply or divide by 1.28) is associated with a practically meaningful change in BF% (≥1 percentage point). Conclusions: The Σ 8 skinfolds can track changes in BF% within individuals with reasonable precision, providing a useful field monitoring tool in the absence of often impractical criterion measures.

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Curtis S. Goss, Joel T. Greenshields, Chris L. Brammer, Kosuke Kojima, Brian V. Wright, Robert F. Chapman and Joel M. Stager

Purpose: To describe the heart-rate (HR) response during a prolonged, submaximal, multirepetition swimming bout (ie, typical early-season swimming training), as there is currently little or no literature on this topic. Methods: A total of 12 collegiate swimmers were instructed to complete sixty 91.4-m (100-yd) freestyle repetitions at their fastest sustainable pace, allowing between 5 and 10 seconds of rest between repetitions. Each swimmer was outfitted with a cardiotachometer, which monitored HR throughout the trial. Completion time (CT) was also recorded for each repetition. Individual means of HR and CT were calculated, and linear mixed models were used to determine the trend across repetitions and between- and within-subject SD for HR and CT. Results: The mean (SD) value for HR was 167.8 (10.8) beats per minute (bpm), for CT was 68.7 (4.1) seconds, and for percentage of best time was 71.2% (4.5%). There was no change (Δ rep 55–6) in HR (−0.1 bpm; 95% confidence interval, −6.8 to 6.6 bpm; P = .97), whereas CT increased (3.0 s; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–4.4 s; P = .001). The between-subjects SD (95% confidence interval) for HR was 12.6 (8.4–19.3 bpm) and for CT was 4.6 (3.1–7.0 s). The within-subject SDs for HR and CT were 4.0 (3.8–4.3 bpm) and 0.9 (0.8–0.95 s), respectively. Conclusions: The inherent individual variability between swimmers in HR during training suggests that coaches carefully consider the common practice of prescribing workout intensity using rigid HR zones.