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Karen E. Hancock, Paul Downward and Lauren B. Sherar

Momentary feelings of pleasure and purpose can be sources of intrinsic motivation, but momentary purpose is rarely studied. Activities, contexts, and feelings of retired/semiretired adults (n = 67, aged 50–78 years) were captured using ecological momentary assessment. Participants provided 2,065 valid responses to six daily smartphone surveys for 7 days. Physical activity was measured by waist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Pleasure (measured by affective happiness) and purpose outcomes were regressed on activities, context, and potential confounding variables. Interactions between activities and contexts were explored. Participants were highly active: 98.5% met physical activity guidelines. Sedentary activities were negatively associated with sense of purpose, especially when indoors. However, social sedentary activities were positively associated with feelings of happiness. Active, social outdoor activities were positively associated with both outcomes. Less sedentary participants experienced greater happiness and purpose during all their activities. Context matters: active, social, and outdoor activities seem to be more appealing to older adults.

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov and Karen Milton

Background: The World Health Organization has released the first global public health guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior for people living with disability. This paper presents the guidelines, related processes, and evidence, and elaborates upon how the guidelines can support inclusive policy, practice, and research. Methods: Methods were consistent with the World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Systematic reviews of the evidence on physical activity for health for people living with disability were appraised, along with a consideration of the evidence used to inform the general 2020 World Health Organization guidelines. Results: Evidence supported the development of recommendations for people living with disability, stressing that there are no major risks to engaging in physical activity appropriate to an individual’s current activity level, health status, and physical function, and that the health benefits accrued generally outweigh the risks. They also emphasize the benefits of limiting sedentary behavior. Conclusions: The guidelines mark a positive step forward for disability inclusion, but considerable effort is needed to advance the agenda. This paper highlights key considerations for the implementation of the new recommendations for people living with disability, in line with the human rights agenda underpinning the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 and allied policies.

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Junga Lee

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) levels on dementia risk and dementia mortality. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were used to search for eligible studies from January 1990 to September 2019. To be included, the study was required to be a prospective cohort study that provided CF measurements and indicated relative risk and confidence intervals for the associations between CF and dementia risk and mortality. A total of six studies were selected for this meta-analysis. Low-level CF was associated with nearly three times greater risk of dementia (2.93, 95% confidence interval [1.31, 6.57]; p < .05) compared with a high-level CF. Enhanced CF levels decreased the risk of dementia, and an increase of one metabolic equivalent of task in the CF level reduced the risk of dementia and dementia mortality. Maintaining more than 12 metabolic equivalents of task of CF level was required to substantially decrease dementia risk and dementia mortality.

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L. Jayne Beselt, Michelle C. Patterson, Meghan H. McDonough, Jennifer Hewson and Scott MacKay

Physical activity (PA) and social support have known benefits for the well-being and health of older adults, and social support is associated with PA behavior and positive affective experiences in PA contexts. The aim of this study was to synthesize qualitative research conducted on the experiences of social support related to PA among older adults (age ≥55 years). Following meta-study methodology, the authors searched nine databases and extracted information from 31 studies. Results were synthesized in terms of common themes and in light of theoretical and methodological perspectives used. The qualitative literature identifies supportive behaviors and social network outcomes which may be useful for informing how best to support older adults to be physically active. This literature rarely reflected the experiences of vulnerable populations, and future research should aim to further understand supportive behaviors which enable older adults to overcome barriers and challenges to being physically active.

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Katherine Holland and Justin A. Haegele

The purpose of this article is to review qualitative inquiries examining the perspectives of students with disabilities toward physical education (PE) published from 2014 to 2019, as an update to the 2015 review by Haegele and Sutherland. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from nine electronic databases, and seven articles met all inclusion criteria. The seven selected articles were subjected to a narrative analysis, and three thematic clusters emerged: (a) an “inconvenience”: the PE teacher’s influence on quality of experience, (b) “we play together and I like it”: friendships central to the quality of PE experience, and (c) “no lift access to the gym”: barriers to successful participation. Findings from this review support the notion that students with disabilities may have positive experiences in PE if they are offered appropriate modifications and accommodations and are provided with increased kind and supportive interactions with staff and peers.

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Mengyun Luo, Philayrath Phongsavan, Adrian Bauman, Joel Negin, Zhiruo Zhang and Ding Ding

The correlates of physical activity differ across domains. The authors explored the contribution of domain-specific physical activity to total physical activity and examined how different sociodemographic and social capital-related variables are associated with different physical activity domains in older adults, using nationally representative samples from six low- to middle-income countries. Activity at work and home combined plays an important role in contributing to total physical activity, while leisure-time physical activity accounted for an extremely small proportion. Some correlates of physical activity were similar across countries, such as working status and structural social capital, while other associations were country specific. Promoting structural social capital, trust, and perceived safety may confer positive benefits on older adults’ activity.

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Emmanuel Chiebuka Okoye, Christopher Olusanjo Akosile, Fatai Adesina Maruf, Ifeoma Uchenna Onwuakagba and Victoria Chinonye Chukwuma

Objectives: To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) into Igbo culture. Methods: The English version of the PASE (E-PASE) was translated into Igbo, harmonized, back-translated, subjected to expert panel review, and pretested. The final Igbo version of PASE (I-PASE), the E-PASE, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were then administered to consecutively recruited 109 consenting Igbo older adults. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman rank-order correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha at .05 level of significance. Results: All items on the E-PASE were retained on the I-PASE but some modifications were made. The I-PASE had poor internal consistency coefficient (α = .66), poor-to-excellent item, and total score known-group validity (ρ = .24–1.00) and moderate convergent validity (ρ = .50). Conclusion: The I-PASE is a valid, reliable, and culturally specific tool for assessing PA among Igbo older adults.

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Asim Smailagic, Andreas Ihle, Adilson Marques, Bruna R. Gouveia, Mónica Cameirão, Honorato Sousa, Matthias Kliegel and Daniel Siewiorek

Background and Objectives: Regular physical exercise can attenuate age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a physical exercise multicomponent training based on exergames on cognitive functioning (CF) in older adults. Research Design and Methods: This randomized controlled trial included older adults aged 61–78. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n = 15) or active control group (CG; n = 16). The IG was exposed to a combined training with traditional exercise and exergaming, twice a week over a period of 12 weeks. The CG performed only traditional sessions. CF was assessed by the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument. The time points for assessment were at zero (pretest), 12 (posttest), and 17 weeks (follow-up). Results: Active CG and IG increased from pretest to posttest in short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), and Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument total score 1.98 > Z < 3.00, ps < .005, with moderately large positive effects (.36 > r < .54). A significant increase was seen from posttest to follow-up in STM, Z = 2.74, p = .006, and LTM, Z = 2.31, p < .021, only in IG. Across the two time periods posttest to follow-up, there were significant interaction effects between program type and time for STM (p = .022, ηp2=.17) and LTM (p = .004, ηp2=.25), demonstrating a more beneficial effect of the exergames intervention compared to the CG. Discussion and Implications: The integration of exergaming in a multicomponent functional fitness exercise might have the potential to maintain and improve CF (in particular, STM and LTM) in older adults.

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Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

This study tested the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the MotionWatch 8 among assisted living residents with and without cognitive impairment. Data from the Dissemination and Implementation of Function Focused Care in Assisted Living Using the Evidence Integration Triangle study were used. The sample included 781 individuals from 85 facilities with a mean age of 89.48 (SD = 7.43) years. The majority were female (71%), White (97%), and overall (44%) had cognitive impairment. A total of 70% were willing to wear the MotionWatch 8. Reliability was supported as there was no difference in time spent in activity across three consecutive wear days. Validity was based on hypothesis testing, and function was associated with counts of activity at baseline (p = .001) and 4 months (p = .001). Those with cognitive impairment engaged in less physical activity (p = .04). The MotionWatch 8 is a useful option for measuring physical activity in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.