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Satoshi Matsuno, Takuya Yoshiike, Atsushi Yoshimura, Sachiyo Morita, Yusuke Fujii, Motoyasu Honma, Yuji Ozeki, and Kenichi Kuriyama

Although standing plantar perception training (SPPT) may improve standing postural stability, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. The authors investigated the relationship between regional cortical responses to SPPT using a balance pad and training outcomes in 32 older participants (mean ± SD:72.2 ± 6.0, range:60–87). Regional cortical activity was measured in the bilateral supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor area, and parietal association area using near-infrared spectroscopy. Postural sway changes were compared before and after SPPT. Changes in two-point plantar discrimination and regional cortical activity during SPPT, associated with standing postural stability improvements, were examined using multiple regression and indicated improved standing postural stability after SPPT (p < .0001). Changes in right parietal association area activity were associated with standing postural stability improvements while barefoot. Overall, the results suggest that right parietal association area activation during SPPT plays a crucial role in regulating standing postural stability and may help develop strategies to prevent older adults from falling.

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Jennifer L. Etnier, Jarod C. Vance, and Aiko Ueno

Numerous studies show that exercise benefits memory and some show that acute exercise prior to encoding has larger benefits than exercise after encoding. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acute exercise on memory in middle-aged and older adults (M age = 64.71 years) and to explore the influence of the timing of the exercise on these effects. Using a within-subjects design, moderate-intensity exercise (20 min) was either not performed (control), performed before the task (exercise prior), or performed after the task (exercise post). Memory was assessed using the Rey Auditory Learning Verbal Test. For short- and long-term memory and learning, significantly more words were remembered in the exercise-prior condition than the others. For 24-hr recall, participants remembered significantly more words in the exercise-prior condition than exercise post, which was better than control. Exercise benefits memory for healthy middle-aged and older adults, with the greatest benefits when performed prior to encoding.

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Rona Macniven, Rachel Wilson, Tim Olds, and John Evans

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that Indigenous children have higher physical activity levels that non-Indigenous children, yet little is known of the factors that influence these levels or how they may be optimized. This study examines correlates of achieving ≥1 hour/day of physical activity among Indigenous Australian children aged 8–13 years. Methods: Data were collected through parental self-report in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Proportions of children achieving ≥1 hour/day physical activity, approximating the Australian aerobic physical activity recommendations, were calculated, and associations with sociodemographic, family composition, and movement-related factors were quantified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Half of the 1233 children achieved ≥1 hour/day physical activity. Children from families with low parental education and unemployment, remote residence, low socioeconomic status, and without a father in the household were more likely to meet the recommendations. Achieving ≥1 hour/day of physical activity was also associated with low levels of playing electronic games and total screen time. Conclusions: Sociodemographic correlates of physical activity among Indigenous Australian children run counter to those typically found in non-Indigenous Australian children. Further longitudinal examination of the predictors of these associations would provide a greater understanding of Indigenous physical activity determinants, to inform strategies to facilitate participation.

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Karin Weman Josefsson

Sweden has adopted a somewhat different approach to handle the corona pandemic, which has been widely debated both on national and international levels. The Swedish model involves more individual responsibility and reliance on voluntary civic liability than law enforcement, while common measures in other countries are based on more controlling strategies, such as restrictive lockdowns, quarantines, closed borders, and mandatory behavior constraints. This commentary aims to give a brief overview of the foundations of the Swedish model as well as a discussion on how and why it has been adopted in the Swedish society based on Swedish legislations, culture, and traditions. Finally, perspectives on how the Swedish model could be connected to the tenets of self-determination theory will be discussed.

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Marziyeh Arman, Lisa M. Barnett, Steven J. Bowe, Abbas Bahram, and Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Perceived Movement Skill Competence scales for Iranian children. In particular, the scales aligned with the second and third versions of the Test of Gross Motor Development and the active play skills. The total sample was 314 children aged 4–8 years (M age = 6.1 years, SD = 1.1). From this, a random sample of 74 were recruited for face validity. The data from the remaining 240 children were used to establish construct validity using Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling. The data from a second random subsample of 126 children were used to investigate Perceived Movement Skill Competence reliability using ordinal alpha coefficients and intraclass correlations coefficients. The majority of children correctly identified the skills and understood most of the pictures. Internal consistency was very good (from 0.81 to 0.95) for all scales and subscales. Test–retest reliability was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient values above .85. For construct validity, the initial hypothesized models for three-factor (i.e., locomotor, object control, and play skills) and two-factor (i.e., locomotor and object control) models showed a reasonable fit. The pictorial scales for Perceived Movement Skill Competence are valid and reliable for Iranian young children.

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Sarah Labudek, Lena Fleig, Carl-Philipp Jansen, Franziska Kramer-Gmeiner, Corinna Nerz, Clemens Becker, Jochen Klenk, and Michael Schwenk

This study examined the applicability of the health action process approach (HAPA) to walking duration in older adults and the added value of extending the HAPA by intrinsic motivation. Self-reports from older adults (N = 309; M age = 78.7, 70–95 years) regarding activity-related intrinsic motivation and HAPA variables were collected at the baseline of a fall prevention intervention study. Walking duration at ≥3 metabolic equivalents of task was measured for 7 days via body-worn accelerometers. Two structural equation models with walking duration as a manifest outcome were specified. In both models, the model fit was acceptable, but intention and planning were not associated with walking duration. Intrinsic motivation was significantly related to most HAPA variables and walking duration. Variance explained for walking duration was R 2 = .14 in the HAPA and R 2 = .17 in the extended model. For explaining older adults’ walking duration, intrinsic motivation, but not HAPA-based intention and planning, seemed to be important.

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Manju Daniel, David Marquez, Diana Ingram, and Louis Fogg

Background: South Asian Indian immigrants residing in the United States are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (prevalence ≥35%), diabetes (prevalence 45.4%), and stroke (prevalence 26.5%). This study examined the effect of culturally relevant physical activity interventions on the improvement of physiological measures and average daily steps in at-risk midlife South Asian Indian immigrant women. Methods: In this 2-arm interventional research design, the dance (n = 25) and the motivational phone calls group (n = 25), attended social cognitive theory–based motivational workshops every 2 weeks for the first 12 weeks. Data for weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol level, and 12-lead electrocardiogram were collected at the baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Results: Significant differences were seen in body weight (F 2,94 = 4.826, P = .024; ηp2=.093), waist circumference (F 2,92 = 7.496, P = .001; ηp2=.140), systolic blood pressure (F 2,94 = 19.865, P = .000; ηp2=.2970), triglyceride (F 2,94 = 11.111, P = .000; ηp2=.191), cholesterol (F 2,94 = 8.925, P = .001; ηp2=.160), blood sugar level (F 2,94 = 8.851, P = .000; ηp2=.158), and average daily steps across both intervention groups over time (F 2,96 = 30.94, P = .000; ηp2=.392). Conclusion: Culturally relevant motivational workshops with Indian dance and walking are an innovative approach to increasing lifestyle physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrant women.