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Farzin Halabchi, Reza Mazaheri, Khashayar Sabeti, Masoud Yunesian, Zahra Alizadeh, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Seyed Mojtaba Aghili and Zahra Tavakol

Purpose: To compare the severity outcomes of COVID-19 disease between patients with and without regular sports participation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated all patients who visited the emergency department of Imam Khomeini hospital with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 from February 20 to April 20, 2020. Then the authors assessed all patient outcomes (outpatient vs hospitalization or death). Finally, the authors compared the outcomes between athletes with regular sports participation and others, adjusting for confounding factors of age and sex. Results: Of all 4694 adult patients, 249 individuals (137 males and 112 females with mean [SD] age of 36.45 [9.77] y) had regular participation in different sport disciplines. Overall, 30 (12%) athletes were hospitalized or died (30 and 0, respectively) compared with 957 (21.5%) nonathletes (878 and 79, respectively). Athletes with regular sports participation were 1.49 times less likely to be hospitalized (P = .044). Conclusions: Regular sports participation may positively affect the clinical outcome, regardless of confounding factors of age and sex. The probability of hospitalization in athletes with regular sports participation was 33% lower than nonathletes. However, more longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal effects.

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Vagner Deuel de Oliveira Tavares, Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho, Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Brendon Stubbs, Lee Smith, Davy Vancampfort and Felipe Barreto Schuch

Purpose: To examine the reliability and convergent validity of self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) to measure physical activity (PA). Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis. The validity and reliability of SRQs to assess PA in people with mental disorders (January 20, 2020). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed pooling (1) test–retest correlations or (2) the convergent validity between the SRQs and objective measures (eg, accelerometry). Associations were provided in r values with the 95% confidence interval. Methodological quality was assessed. Results: A total of 9 unique studies (N = 1344; 40.5% females) were included. The authors found a moderate correlation test–retest reliability for PA SRQs in the assessment of vigorous PA (r = .69 [.38 to .85]; P = .001), moderate to vigorous PA (r = .63 [.25 to .84]; P = .003), moderate PA (r = .63 [.39 to .79]; P = .001), and good correlation total PA (r = .75 [.37 to .92]; P = .001). The SRQs have moderate correlations with objective measures for moderate to vigorous PA (r = .25 [.18 to .32]; P = .0001) and total PA (r = .47 [.28 to .62]; P = .005), a poor correlation for moderate PA (r = .18 [.03 to .36]; P = .047), and no correlation with vigorous PA (r = .06 [−.10 to .22]; P = .440). Conclusion: Current evidence indicates that SRQs are reliable over time to assess moderate, vigorous, and total PA levels and valid when assessing moderate PA.

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Jihyeon Lee and Laura Azzarito

Recent reports have indicated that recent immigrant minority girls are the least physically active in the United States and are often categorized as “bodies-at-risk” for obesity and other health issues. This dominant “at-risk” discourse presents a negative image of recent immigrant minority girls and positions them as “others.” This participatory visual study thus explored how the recent immigrant minority girls co-constructed and shared their (dis)engagement in physical culture on a popular social media platform: Instagram. Results demonstrated that the use of Instagram served two interrelated functions: (a) a constructive pedagogical space in which the participants examined, learned, and expressed their knowledge related to physical activity and health and (b) an empowering tool to create “Thirdspace” in which the participants’ visual texts opened up the space of inclusion and fluidity. Despite potential risks, it was suggested that the use of Instagram was beneficial for conducting research with, for, and about marginalized youth.

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Christopher J. Stevens, Megan L.R. Ross and Roxanne M. Vogel

Menthol is effective at stimulating thermosensitive neurons that evoke pleasant cooling sensations. Internal application of menthol can be ergogenic for athletes, and hence, addition of menthol to sports nutrition products may be beneficial for athletes. The aim of this study was to develop a menthol energy gel for consumption during exercise and to determine acceptability and preferences for gels with different menthol concentrations. With a randomized, crossover, and double-blind placebo-controlled design, 40 endurance athletes (20 females) ingested an energy gel with a menthol additive at a high (0.5%; HIGH) or low concentration (0.1%; LOW), or a mint-flavored placebo (CON), on separate occasions during outdoor endurance training sessions. The athletes rated the gels for cooling sensation, mint flavor intensity, sweetness, and overall experience and provided feedback. Results are reported as median (interquartile range). Both menthol gels successfully delivered a cooling sensation, with a significantly greater response for HIGH (5.0 [4.0–5.0]) compared with LOW (3.5 [3.0–4.0]; p = .022) and CON (1.0 [1.0–2.0]; p < .0005), and LOW compared with CON (p < .0005). Ratings of mint flavor intensity followed the same trend as cooling sensation, while ratings of overall experience were significantly worse for HIGH (2.0 [1.0–3.0]) compared with LOW (4.0 [2.0–4.0]; p = .001) and CON (4.0 [3.0–4.0]; p < .0005). An energy gel with the addition of menthol at 0.1–0.5% provides a cooling sensation for athletes with a dose–response when ingested during exercise. The 0.1% concentration is recommended to maximize the overall experience of the gel.

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Wesley J. Wilson, Ali Brian and Luke E. Kelly

Novice teachers struggle with assessing fundamental motor skills. With growing time constraints, not to mention the current COVID-19 pandemic, professional development needs to be streamlined, asynchronous, and online to meet the needs of current teachers. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of the Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP) in increasing the assessment competency of the underhand roll among physical educators and to examine which factors associated with posttest assessment scores. Twenty-nine physical educators (female = 21, male = 8) completed the program. Paired sample t tests were used to determine the efficacy of the program in improving assessment accuracy from pretest to posttest. Associations between posttest scores assessed which factors predicted success within the program addressing feasibility. Program completion resulted in significantly better posttest assessment scores among participants. Guided practice attempts and average scores on guided practice tests correlated most strongly and positively with posttest scores. The assessment training program increased the assessment competency of physical educators. Guided practice and using practice tests best predicted participant learning. Now that the MSAP results with teacher learning and is feasible, this efficacy trial should be scaled up to feature a control group and more skills.

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, Beatriz D. Schaan and Beatriz D. Schaan

This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in glucose control and respiratory muscle function in patients with diabetes. It was a randomized clinical trial conducted at the Physiopathology Laboratory of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to IMT or placebo-IMT (P-IMT), performed at 30% and 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure, respectively, every day for 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, glycemia, and respiratory muscle function. Thirty patients were included: 73.3% women, 59.6 ± 10.7 years old, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.9% (71.6 ± 9.8 mmol/mol), and glycemia 181.8 ± 57.8 mg/dl (10.5 ± 3.2 mmol/L). At the end of the training, HbA1c was 8.2 ±0.3% (66.1 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) and 8.7 ± 0.3% (71.6 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively (p = .8). Fasting glycemia decreased in both groups with no difference after training although it was lower in IMT at 8 weeks: 170.0 ± 11.4 mg/dl(9.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L) and 184.4 ± 15.0 mg/dl (10.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L) for IMT and P-IMT, respectively (p < .05). Respiratory endurance time improved in the IMT group (baseline = 325.9 ± 51.1 s and 305.0 ± 37.8 s; after 12 weeks = 441.1 ± 61.7 s and 250.7 ± 39.0 s for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively; p < .05). Considering that glucose control did not improve, IMT should not be used as an alternative to other types of exercise in diabetes. Higher exercise intensities or longer training periods might produce better results. The clinical trials identifier is NCT 03191435.

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Adam G. Pfleegor