Background: Variations in genotype may contribute to heterogeneity in functional adaptations to exercise. Methods: A systematic search of eight databases was conducted, and 9,696 citations were screened. Results: Eight citations from seven studies measuring 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and nine different functional performance test outcomes were included in the review. There was one observational study of physical activity and six experimental studies of aerobic or resistance training. The ACE (D) allele, ACTN3 (RR) genotype, UCP2 (GG) genotype, IL-6-174 (GG) genotype, TNF-α-308 (GG) genotype, and IL-10-1082 (GG) genotype all predicted significantly superior adaptations in at least one functional outcome in older men and women after prescribed exercise or in those with higher levels of physical activity. Conclusion: There is a small amount of evidence that older adults may have better functional outcomes after exercise/physical activity if they have specific alleles related to musculoskeletal function or inflammation. However, more robust trials are needed.
Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh
Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the constituent processes of psychological flexibility (contact with the present moment, acceptance, cognitive defusion, self-as-context, value clarification, and committed action) in supporting physical activity (PA) maintenance. A total of 9 physically active participants were interviewed using the Scanlan collaborative interview method. Participants were asked to discuss their strategies for maintaining PA, before being asked whether the 6 psychological flexibility processes played a role in their PA behavior. Data were analyzed using a combination of deductive and inductive thematic analyses. Acceptance, cognitive defusion, value clarification, and committed action played a role in participants’ experiences of maintaining PA. Contact with the present moment and self-as-context were reported to be relatively unimportant to participants’ PA maintenance. Cultivating acceptance of PA-related discomfort, defusion from unhelpful thoughts, clarifying the value of PA, and encouraging commitment to PA would likely benefit individuals’ efforts to maintain PA.
Jeff E. Goodwin
This investigation held concurrent visual feedback frequency at 50% in the acquisition phase and manipulated three different feedback schedules while comparing those to a 0% feedback frequency. In an assessment of dynamic postural stability, young, healthy adults performed 20 acquisition trials and four retention trials 48-hr later on a circular platform that moved in the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral axes simultaneously. Three concurrent feedback schedules were manipulated: a fade schedule consisting of high relative frequency of concurrent feedback early in the acquisition phase which was systematically reduced throughout acquisition (e.g., 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 0%), a constant schedule consisting of a uniform scheduling of concurrent feedback on every other acquisition trial, and a reverse fade group consisting of a schedule exactly opposite to that of the fade group. A no concurrent feedback group was also utilized to determine if feedback was necessary to learn the balance task. Acquisition and retention results revealed the concurrent groups performed with significantly greater accuracy and stability than the no concurrent feedback group. There were no significant differences between the three concurrent feedback schedules. Results indicate that manipulating concurrent feedback scheduling did not produce similar results to those investigations manipulating knowledge of results scheduling.
Vera Ramos, Eliana V. Carraça, Teresa Paiva and Fátima Baptista
The aim of this study was to identify the best predictor of sleep quality (SQ) among physical behavior or capacity-related variables, namely physical activity, sedentary time, fitness, and physical function (activities of daily living) of independent elders using a representative sample of Portuguese aged 65 years and older (N = 437). SQ and activities of daily living were evaluated by a questionnaire, sedentary time, and physical activity through accelerometry, and physical fitness by means of the Senior Fitness Test. The logistic regression analysis revealed that activities of daily living measured by the Composite Physical Function was the only explanatory variable discriminating between poor SQ and good SQ. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity to discriminate older adults with poor SQ and good SQ was 20 points in the Composite Physical Function (sensitivity = 57.9%; specificity = 60.9%; area under the curve = 0.600, 95% confidence interval [0.536, 0.665], p = .003). Better physical function seems to be associated with better SQ in independent elders.
Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Michael Doppelmayr and Günter Amesberger
The present study examined the effect of 4 physical-load conditions on interference control throughout a period of 45 min. A sample of 52 sport students was assigned to either a no, a low, an alternating low to moderate, or a moderate physical-load condition. A modified Eriksen-flanker task was administered in the preexercise period, 7 times during the exercise, and twice after completing the exercise. Significant interaction effects of time and condition, and significant time effects within condition on the reaction time of congruent stimuli and errors on incongruent stimuli, suggest a specific in-task effect of the alternating low to moderate and moderate physical-load conditions. Thus, it was concluded that moderate physiological arousal influences interference control by an increase of information-processing speed in tasks that require less cognitive control (congruent condition), which is at the expense of accuracy in cognitively more demanding tasks (incongruent condition).
Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang
Background: To establish evidence for the validity of the Sedentary Behavior Record (SBR) instrument using a criterion measure through a proxy of direct observation. Methods: A total of 27 study participants (aged ≥18 y; 15 male) participated in this study. Throughout a 4-day measurement period, each participant recorded their sedentary behavior using the SBR in 10-minute blocks every night. During the measurement period, participants also wore wearable Autographer cameras as a proxy for direct observation. Autographer data were aggregated into 10-minute intervals. To establish evidence of validity, contingency (C) and Kappa (K) coefficients were calculated between the SBR and the Autographer data. For C and K, agreements were determined between 2 measures every cell. The coefficient C was compared across domains, types, and time of day, and K was compared across types of day and times of day. Results: Overall, the coefficients C and K were acceptable (C = .70) and substantial (K = .64), respectively. Among all domains, the highest C was reported for work-related sitting (C = .87). Values of C ranged from .49 to .91 among all activities; the highest accuracy was for work-related, screen-based sitting. Conclusions: This study suggests that the SBR is an acceptable self-report measure of sedentary behavior in adults.
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental motor skills (FMS; including locomotor and object-control skills), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior among young Hispanic and non-Hispanic children. Using the prospective research design spanning one academic school year, we recruited 671 children (6.96 ± 1.6 years, 46% girls) from four primary schools in North Texas, 300 of whom were Hispanic and 371 non-Hispanic children, with 90% of the Hispanic and 74% of the non-Hispanic children from low-income families. All participants completed the PE Metrics™ FMS assessment and wore Actical accelerometers. Hispanic children demonstrated a lower level of MVPA on school days than their non-Hispanic peers. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, both locomotor and object-control skills significantly predicted school-based MVPA for the non-Hispanic groups, while only object-control skills significantly predicted MVPA for the Hispanic group. For both ethnic groups, locomotor skills significantly predicted school-based sedentary behavior. The findings shed light on future motor competence–based interventions for physical activity promotion and obesity prevention among young Hispanic as well as non-Hispanic children.
Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson
While managing the intercollegiate athletic development office is critical to contributions generation, the nearly 40 years of research modeling intercollegiate athletic fundraising emphasized limited factors external to this department. Both theoretical and statistical justification warrants a broader scope in contemporary factor identification. With a resource-based view as the theoretical foundation, a list of 43 variables both internal and external to the intercollegiate athletic development office was generated through an extensive literature review and semistructured interviews with athletic and nonathletic fundraising professionals. Based on the factors identified, random and fixed effects regression models were developed via test statistic model reduction across a 5-year panel (FY2011–FY2015). Ninety-three schools were included, representing 73% of the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) membership (85% of public FBS institutions). The results highlight the role of both internal and external factors in explaining intercollegiate athletic fundraising procurement.
Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MetS worldwide is increasing. There is no study investigating the economic burden of MetS, especially in developing countries, on medication-related expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medication-related expenditures with MetS and to explore how physical activity (PA) may influence this association. Methods: A total of 620 participants, 50 years or older, randomly selected in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Participants were followed from 2010 to 2014, and data on health care expenditure were collected annually. PA questionnaire was applied at baseline, 2 (2012), and 4 (2014) years later. Results: Mean age was 64.7 (95% confidence interval, 64.1–65.3). MetS was associated with higher medication expenditure related to diseases of the circulatory (P <.01) and endocrine (P <.01) systems. MetS explained 17.2% of medication-related expenditures, whereas PA slightly attenuated this association, explaining 1.1% of all health care costs. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MetS has a significant burden on health care expenditures among adults, whereas PA seems to affect this phenomenon significantly, but in low magnitude.