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Bonny Rockette-Wagner, Rachel G. Miller, Yvonne L. Eaglehouse, Vincent C. Arena, M. Kaye Kramer and Andrea M. Kriska

Background: The importance of leisure sedentary behavior (LSB) change in diabetes prevention efforts is not well known. This study examines the relationships between changes in self-reported LSB and the primary intervention goals (weight and moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) during a community-based translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (the Group Lifestyle Balance Program). Methods: A total of 322 adults at risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from 3 community centers, a worksite, and military site. Community and worksite participants were randomized to immediate or delayed-delivery (control) intervention. All military site participants (n = 99) received immediate intervention. Logistic and linear generalized estimating equations were used to determine associations between LSB changes and weight-related outcomes and MVPA. Results: Results were obtained for 259 (80.4%) participants. The LSB decreased after 6 and 12 months (mean [95% confidence interval]: −25.7 [−38.6 to −12.8] and −16.1 [−28.2 to −3.9] min/d; both P < .05). Each 20-minute reduction in LSB was associated with a 5% increase in odds of meeting the weight-loss goal (6 mo: odds ratio = 1.05 [1.002 to 1.102]; P = .042; adjusted model including MVPA), but LSB was not related to changes in reported MVPA minutes or MVPA goal achievement. Conclusion: Within the context of existing lifestyle intervention programs, reducing sedentary behavior has the potential to contribute to weight loss separately from reported MVPA improvement.

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María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Eva Clemente-Bosch, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis-Morales, Isabel Martínez and Agustín Llopis-González

Background: The practice of physical exercise during pregnancy has benefits for both the mother and baby. Currently, there is scientific evidence that supports the inclusion of a monitored physical activity program in the daily activities of pregnant women. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of the association between physical activity during pregnancy and the effects on the mother and the newborn. Methods: A systematic review of the literature, assessing each study using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, from different databases PubMed, Embase, or ScienceDirect, on the association between maternal physical activity and its effects on the mother and the newborn published from 2010 until 2018 was conducted. Results: About 25 studies were identified and divided into categories according to the health problems affecting the mother or newborn. It was found that 8% of all the studies received a grade B, 68% obtained a grade C, and the remaining 24% obtained less than a grade C. Improved cardiovascular function, decreased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and the limitation of weight gain are among the benefits to the mother with lower percentage of body fat, increased gestational age, and potentially improved neurodevelopment as benefits for the child. Conclusions: The realization of physical activity during pregnancy is supported by most of the studies reviewed. However, given the vulnerability of the studied populations, more studies on the association between physical activity and pregnancy are necessary.

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Carolina M. Bejarano, Linda C. Gallo, Sheila F. Castañeda, Melawhy L. Garcia, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Krista M. Perreira, Carmen R. Isasi, Martha Daviglus, Linda Van Horn, Alan M. Delamater, Kimberly L. Savin, Jianwen Cai and Jordan A. Carlson

Background: Total sedentary time and prolonged sedentary patterns can negatively impact health. This study investigated rates of various sedentary pattern variables in Hispanic/Latino youth. Methods: Participants were 956 youths (50.9% female) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth, a population-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino 8- to 16-year-olds from 4 geographic regions in the United States (2012–2014). Total sedentary time and 10 sedentary pattern variables were measured through 1 week of accelerometer wear. Differences were examined by sociodemographic characteristics, geographic location, weekdays versus weekends, and season. Results: On average, youth were sedentary during 67.3% of their accelerometer wear time, spent 24.2% engaged in 10- to 29-minute sedentary bouts, and 7.2% in ≥60-minute bouts. 8- to 12-year-olds had more favorable sedentary patterns (less time in extended bouts and more breaks) than 13- to 16-year-olds across all sedentary variables. Sedentary patterns also differed by Hispanic/Latino background, with few differences across sex, household income, season, and place of birth, and none between weekdays versus weekends. Conclusions: Variables representing prolonged sedentary time were high among Hispanic/Latino youth. Adolescents in this group appear to be at especially high risk for unhealthy sedentary patterns. Population-based efforts are needed to prevent youth from engaging in increasingly prolonged sedentary patterns.

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Laura Zlibinaite, Albertas Skurvydas, Sandra Kilikeviciene and Rima Solianik

Background: The effect of globally recommended levels of physical activity on cognition and motor behavior is not completely understood. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to assess the effect of 300 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cognitive and motor performance among overweight and obese working-age women. Methods: Overweight and obese participants aged 38–56 years were randomized to either a control or an experimental group performing aerobic exercise at 50% to 60% of the peak oxygen consumption for a 2-month period. Changes in aerobic fitness, cardiac autonomic function, brain-derived neurotropic factor levels, and cognitive and motor performance were assessed. Results: Although aerobic exercise reduced body weight (P < .05) and improved peak oxygen consumption (P < .05), the brain-derived neurotropic factor levels and cognitive and motor performance remained unchanged. Heart rate and blood pressure decreased (P < .05), whereas heart rate variability indices were not affected. No significant correlations between changes in heart rate variability indices and cognition were observed. Conclusions: Two months of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreased sympathetic activity and improved cardiovascular fitness but had no impact on cognition or motor control among these middle-aged, overweight, and obese women.

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Sebastien Pollet, James Denison-Day, Katherine Bradbury, Rosie Essery, Elisabeth Grey, Max Western, Fiona Mowbray, Kirsten A. Smith, Joanna Slodkowska-Barabasz, Nanette Mutrie, Paul Little and Lucy Yardley

Purpose: This study explored participant views of a web-based physical activity intervention for older adults and examined how they resonate with the key principles that guided intervention development. Methods: Qualitative interviews were carried out with 52 older adults. A deductive qualitative analysis approach was taken, based around the intervention’s key principles. Results: Participants expressed mostly positive views of the intervention features, broadly confirming the appropriateness of the key principles, which were to: (a) encourage intrinsic motivation for physical activity, (b) minimize the risk of users receiving activity suggestions that are inappropriate or unsafe, (c) offer users choice regarding the activities they engage with and build confidence to undertake more activity, and (d) minimize the cognitive load and need to engage with the intervention website. The findings also identified ways in which content could be improved to further increase acceptability. Conclusion: This study illustrates how using the person-based approach has enabled the identification and implementation of features that older adults appreciate.

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Hannah E. Kling, Emily M. D’Agostino, Ja’mese Booth, Eric Hansen, Emily Hawver, M. Sunil Mathew and Sarah E. Messiah

This proof-of-concept study examined feasibility of assessing longitudinal changes in body mass index, strength, mobility, and cardiovascular health outcomes in older, racial/ethnic minority adults participating in a park-based physical activity program. Study feasibility was based on follow-through data collection procedures and ability to manage and implement data collection, enrollment, and repeated measures data collection in older adults (≥50 years; n = 380; 45% Hispanic, 41% non-Hispanic Black) over a 28-month period. Mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of program participation over time on participant cardiovascular and fitness outcomes and across poverty and age subgroups. Model estimates adjusted for individual-level sociodemographics showed improvements across each 4 month time point in arm strength (0.55 arm curl; 95% confidence interval [0.33, 0.77]) and systolic (−0.68 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [−1.22, −0.13]) and diastolic (−0.47 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [−0.79, −0.16]) blood pressure. An Age × Poverty interaction found greater improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure among younger participants living in low poverty (vs. older in higher poverty). Study of the longitudinal association between fitness class participation and health outcomes was feasible in park-based settings.

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Annette Burns, Lee Smith, Connor Cunningham, Roger O’Sullivan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson and Mark A. Tully

Social relationships are central to the health and well-being of older adults. Evidence exploring the association of physical activity (PA) with social isolation and loneliness is limited. This study uses a path analysis to investigate the longitudinal association between loneliness and social isolation with PA using the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Higher levels of social isolation measured using the Berkman–Syme Social Network Index were directly and indirectly associated with lower levels of walking, moderate PA, and vigorous PA over 6 years. Additionally, higher levels of walking were associated with lower levels of loneliness measured using a modified version of the University of California, Los Angeles loneliness scale over a 3-year period. Future interventions should target individuals who are more socially isolated and explore the effects of different types of PA on loneliness over time.

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Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre

In two experiments, the authors investigated the influence of stress type (i.e., low/no stress, mental, and physical), level (i.e., low, moderate, and high), and Type × Level interaction on intuitive decision frequency, decision quality, and decision speed. Participants were exposed to mental (i.e., color word task, mental arithmetic) and/or physical stress (i.e., running) and then required to make decisions regarding videotaped offensive situations in basketball. Intuitive decision frequency, decision quality, and decision speed were measured for each trial. Study 1 used a between-subjects design whereby 20 participants were randomly assigned to each of the five stress conditions. Results revealed that moderate stress was associated with faster decisions. Study 2 replicated the design and aim of Study 1 using a within-subject methodology (n = 42). Results suggested that moderate stress levels produced better, faster decisions. In conclusion, moderate levels of stress were associated with the most desirable decision outcomes.

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Alison Divine, Tanya Berry, Wendy Rodgers and Craig Hall

Background: Recent physical activity research is limited by intention–behavior discordance and is beginning to recognize the importance of automatic processes in exercise. The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of multidimensional exercise self-efficacy (SE), explicit–implicit evaluative discrepancies (EIEDs) for health, and appearance on the intention–behavior gap in exercise. Methods: A total of 141 middle-aged inactive participants (mean age = 46.12 [8.17] y) completed measures of intentions, SE, and explicit and implicit evaluations of exercise outcomes. The participants were classified as inclined actors (n = 107) if they successfully started the exercise program and inclined abstainers (n = 35) if they were not successful. Results: The inclined actors and abstainers did not differ on intentions to exercise; however, the inclined actors had higher coping SE and lower EIEDs for health. In addition, the coping SE (Exp [β] = 1.03) and EIEDs for health (Exp [β] = −0.405) were significant predictors of being an inclined actor. Conclusions: The interaction between explicit and implicit processes in regard to health motives for exercise appears to influence the successful enactment of exercise from positive intentions. As most physical activity promotion strategies focus on health as a reason to be active, the role of implicit and explicit evaluations on behavioral decisions to exercise may inform future interventions.

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Jongbum Ko, Dalton Deprez, Keely Shaw, Jane Alcorn, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Corey Tomczak, Heather Foulds and Philip D. Chilibeck

Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended for reducing blood pressure; however, recent studies indicate that stretching may also be effective. The authors compared 8 weeks of stretching versus walking exercise in men and women with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension (ie, 130/85–159/99 mm Hg). Methods: Forty men and women (61.6 y) were randomized to a stretching or brisk walking exercise program (30 min/d, 5 d/wk for 8 wk). Blood pressure was assessed during sitting and supine positions and for 24 hours using a portable monitor before and after the training programs. Results: The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for sitting systolic (146 [9] to 140 [12] vs 139 [9] to 142 [12] mm Hg), supine diastolic (85 [7] to 78 [8] vs 81 [7] to 82 [7] mm Hg), and nighttime diastolic (67 [8] to 65 [10] vs 68 [8] to 73 [12] mm Hg) blood pressures. The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for mean arterial pressure assessed in sitting (108 [7] to 103 [6] vs 105 [6] vs 105 [8] mm Hg), supine (102 [9] to 96 [9] vs 99 [6] to 99 [7] mm Hg), and at night (86 [9] to 83 [10] vs 88 [9] to 93 [12] mm Hg). Conclusions: An 8-week stretching program was superior to brisk walking for reducing blood pressure in individuals with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension.