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Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue and Koichiro Oka

Background: The present study examined the cluster of domain-specific sedentary behaviors (SBs) and their associations with physical function among community-dwelling older adults to identify the target groups that require intervention for SBs. Methods: A total of 314 older adults who participated in a population-based cross-sectional survey and an on-site functional assessment in Matsudo City in Chiba participated in this study. Participants were asked to report the daily average of 6 domain-specific SBs. To identify the cluster of domain-specific SBs, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Analysis of covariance adjusted for sociodemographic factors, exercise habit, chronic disease, and total SB time was performed to examine the associations between each cluster and physical functional status. Results: The average age of the participants was 74.5 (5.2) years. The 4 clusters identified were leisure cluster, low cluster, work and personal computer use cluster, and television viewing cluster. The analysis of covariance adjusted for covariates showed that grip strength (P = .01), maximum walking speed (P = .03), and 1-leg standing time (P = .03) were significantly poorer in the television viewing cluster than other clusters. Conclusions: It has been concluded that the television viewing group identified as a high-risk group of physical functional decline; therefore, interventions targeting this group are needed to prevent physical functional decline.

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Inger Mechlenburg, Marianne Tjur and Kristian Overgaard

Background: High levels of sitting may have a negative impact on health. The aim of this study was to examine how sitting time varies between work and leisure time and to identify parameters associated with overall sitting time and prolonged sitting. Methods: In a total of 189 persons ≥18 years randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, sitting time was monitored with an accelerometer-based sensor mounted at the mid-thigh. Moreover, participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographics, work schedule, and general health. Data were processed using a custom built algorithm. Overall sitting was parametrized as mean % of time spent sitting and prolonged sitting as s (periods exceeding 30 minutes). Results: During working hours, the mean overall sitting time (49.2%) was significantly lower than during leisure time on both working days (60.6%, p < .0001) and on days off work (58.9%, p < .0001). For men, prolonged sitting was positively associated with age, while corresponding associations were negative among female participants (p = .01). Body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.06 kg/m2 for every % increase in prolonged sitting (p = .005). The odds ratio of reporting poor health was 1.05 for every % increase in overall sitting during leisure time on workdays (p = .005). Conclusions: Overall sitting time varies between work and leisure time. Prolonged sitting is positively associated with age for men and with BMI for both men and women.

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Eric J. Evans, Keith E. Naugle, Tyler Owen and Kelly M. Naugle

Whether active gaming is an appropriate method to facilitate moderate-intensity physical activity in older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intensity of physical activity and enjoyment while playing three active video games in older adults compared with younger adults. Ten younger and 10 older adults played three active games on separate days. Participants played two 15-min periods per game: one period at a self-selected intensity and one period with structured instructions to maximize the movement. Physical activity intensity and enjoyment were measured during gameplay. The results indicated that older adults played games at significantly higher intensities (5.3 + 1.8 vs. 3.6 + 1.8 metabolic equivalents), spent less time in whole-body sedentary activity, and rated games more enjoyable compared with younger adults. With physical activity intensity being consistent with moderate-to-vigorous intensity for older adults during gameplay, the results suggest that active video games could be used as a cardiovascular tool for older adults.

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

The authors examined the musculoskeletal implications of delayed exercise adoption in two distinct cohorts of masters athletes with ∼10 years of training experience: Olympic weightlifters (OWLs) and distance runners (RUNs). Total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived lean mass were compared in 51 OWLs and 43 RUNs. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted on BMD and lean mass with the exercise group (i.e., OWLs vs. RUNs), age, sex, and years of experience as independent variables. Age was associated (p < .05) with less femoral (β = −0.25) and lumbar (β = −0.27) BMD. Total body (β = 0.23), lumbar (β = 0.25), and radial (β = 0.36) BMD were greater (p < .05) in OWLs versus RUNs. Lean mass was greater in OWLs versus RUNs (β = 0.29, p < .01), but did not relate to total body BMD (r = .15; p = .08). Greater total and regional BMD and lean mass in OWLs compared with RUNs may reduce risk for developing osteoporosis and/or sarcopenia and associated downstream health outcomes.

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Tyler L. Malone, Adam Kern, Emily Klueh and Daniel Eisenberg

This study sought to determine the efficacy of particular strategies for delivering information about coping skills for stress to college student-athletes. This study analyzed 166 undergraduate varsity student-athletes. Among these participants, 60.8% were female (n = 101). The authors used a randomized controlled trial to compare video-based and text-based interventions designed to deliver coping skills information. Five weeks after the intervention, the participants completed a follow-up survey containing simple self-report questions regarding the memorability, use, and helpfulness of the coping skills information. In general, both strategies led to the use of coping skills by a sizeable proportion of the sample. The participants in the video-based deep breathing intervention were more than twice as likely to use coping skills compared with participants in the text-based intervention (risk ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [1.02, 4.71], p = .03). Overall, the results suggest that both video- and text-based interventions have the potential to promote coping skills.

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Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert and Stephanie D. Moore

This study investigated whether gratitude predicted burnout directly and indirectly through coach–athlete relationships. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions I (n = 305), II (n = 202), and III (n = 89) student-athletes (N = 596, 76.5% women) completed a survey regarding athlete burnout, coach–athlete relationships, trait gratitude, and state gratitude (sport and general). Structural equation modeling revealed that gratitude predicted athletes’ burnout. Sport state gratitude was the most accurate negative predictor of burnout. In addition, indirect associations between sport state gratitude and burnout emerged through coach–athlete relationships, suggesting that sport state gratitude was positively associated with coach–athlete relationships, which in turn, negatively predicted burnout. Coach–athlete relationships were positively predicted by sport state gratitude. These findings suggest that grateful student-athletes may experience less burnout, and athletes who have strong coach–athlete relationships may experience more gratitude.

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Lena Busch, Till Utesch, Paul-Christian Bürkner and Bernd Strauss

Self-tracking via fitness apps is popular and has been described as a means to enhance body awareness and well-being. However, the effects of fitness-app use and specific app functions on well-being and body awareness have yet to be targeted in controlled experimental studies. In two randomized groups, a fitness tracker was used for 6 weeks, and in one group a daily step target was implemented. In a third control group, participants documented their physical activity. A daily diary method was used to measure well-being and body trusting. In Bayesian multilevel analyses, no time, group, or interaction effects were found. These results were robust when controlling for diverse variables. It can be concluded that exercise-related self-tracking and specific step goals do not substantially influence psychological well-being and body trusting. Considering the large variability in effects, potential effects can be assumed under conditions that are to be identified in further studies.

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Elena López-Cañada, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Sofía Pereira-García, Jorge Fuentes-Miguel and Víctor Pérez-Samaniego

Background: This study describes the prevalence, frequency, and type of physical activity and sport (PAS) practiced by trans persons before and after their gender disclosure (GD). Methods: A face-to-face survey was administered to 212 Spanish trans persons, aged from 10 to 62 years old. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Results: About 75.5% of the trans persons in this study engaged in PAS and more than 50% did so ≥3 times/week, which is similar as in the general Spanish population. Participation was higher in trans men (78.7%) than trans women (72%). However, GD emerges as a key issue in characterizing trans persons’ PAS participation. A group of 14.5% of them stopped activity after GD. Participation in nonorganized PAS was higher than in organized PAS, and this difference is greater after GD because most participants gave up organized PAS in favor of nonorganized PAS. Trans persons preferred individual sports and activities than team sports before and after GD, and the top 3 activities were jogging, walking, and bodybuilding. Trans men participation was higher than trans women in team PAS, whereas individual PAS were equally practiced before and after GD. Participation in football, swimming, basketball, dancing, and volleyball declined after GD, whereas bodybuilding increased in trans men. Conclusions: The results show that the high involvement of trans persons coincides with strategies used to hide or conceal their gender identities when participating in PAS. A decrease in PAS participation is observed after GD probably because it is an acute potential period of anxiety, discrimination, and victimization caused by trans persons’ body exposure.

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Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert James Copeland, Steve Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton and Alfonso Jimenez

Objectives: To examine if exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are associated with meaningful changes in physical activity in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland, and Wales from The National Referral Database. Methods: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different ERSs, lasting 6–12 weeks. The preexercise referral scheme and changes from the preexercise to the postexercise referral scheme in self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores were examined. A 2-stage individual patient data meta-analysis was used to generate the effect estimates. Results: For the pre-ERS metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, the estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 676 MET minutes per week (539 to 812). For the change in MET minutes per week, the estimate (95% CI) was an increase of 540 MET minutes per week (396 to 684). Changes in the total PA levels occurred as a result of increases in vigorous activity of 17 minutes (95% CI, 9 to 24), increases in moderate activity of 29 minutes (95% CI, 22 to 36), and reductions in sitting of −61 minutes (95% CI, −78 to −43), though little change in walking (−5 min; 95% CI, −14 to 5) was found. Conclusions: Most participants undergoing ERSs are already “moderately active.” Changes in PA behavior associated with participation are through increased moderate to vigorous PA and reduced sitting. However, this was insufficient to change the International Physical Activity Questionnaire category, and the participants were still “moderately active.”

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Allysiê Priscilla de Souza Cavina, Eduardo Pizzo Junior, Aryane Flauzino Machado, Taíse Mendes Biral, Leonardo Kesrouani Lemos, Caio Russo Dutra Rodrigues, Carlos Marcelo Pastre and Franciele Marques Vanderlei

Background: The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of the mat Pilates method on body composition in healthy adult subjects compared with traditional exercise or control condition models. Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, SciELO, CINAHAL, and the Cochrane Library. Results: A total of 10 eligible studies were selected for revision. The findings of this review demonstrated that the mat Pilates method was not more effective than the traditional exercise or control condition models for the analyzed variables (body mass index, lean mass, body fat percentage, and abdominal circumference). Moreover, in the exploratory analysis with older people, adults, and overweight/obese individuals, the mat Pilates method was also not superior for the analyzed outcomes. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the mat Pilates method is no better than the control condition or other types of training to reduce body composition.