Researchers posit that physical activity (PA) settings may provide an increased opportunity for social interaction. However, little consensus exists regarding the construct of social skills. Moreover, little is known about what type or amount of PA is necessary for individuals on the autism spectrum to benefit from this increased interaction. Thus, this scoping review synthesized the components (e.g., design, participants, independent and dependent variables, etc.) and findings of PA-based interventions that included social skill components to identify how interventions have incorporated these skills in different settings. Based on a review of 25 articles, this review revealed a great deal of variability in the types of PA, social skills, and instruments studied, as well as the intensity of intervention delivery in the published findings. No longitudinal studies were identified as a part of the search. These results provide a foundation for the design of effective PA-based interventions that may have an increased impact on the social skills of individuals on the autism spectrum. Future research should employ longitudinal designs to capture the relationship between social skills and PA, as well as to increase the likelihood of capturing change.
Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Aaron T. Scanlan, Masaru Teramoto and Charli Sargent
Purpose: To investigate the associations between sleep and competitive performance in basketball. Methods: A total of 7 semiprofessional, male players were monitored across the in-season. On nights prior to competition, sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphs and sleep diaries. The data were accumulated over 1 (night 1), 2 (nights 1–2 combined), 3 (nights 1–3 combined), and 4 (nights 1–4 combined) nights prior to competition. Performance was reported as player statistics (field goal and free-throw accuracy, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, and turnovers) and composite performance statistics (offensive rating, defensive rating, and player efficiency). Linear regression analyses with cluster-robust standard errors using bootstrapping (1000 replications) were performed to quantify the association between sleep and performance. Results: The night before competition, subjective sleep quality was positively associated with offensive rating and player efficiency (P < .05). Conclusions: Strategies to increase subjective sleep quality the night before competition should be considered to increase the likelihood of successful in-game performance, given its association with composite performance metrics.
Jessica A. Calderbank, Paul Comfort and John J. McMahon
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between dive distance (DD) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height, track start CMJ height, countermovement broad jump (CMBJ) distance, track start broad jump distance, and isometric midthigh pull peak force and relative peak force. Methods: A total of 27 (11 female and 16 male) regional-national-international-standard swimmers (mean [SD]; age = 19.5 [5.5] y; mass = 69.3 [10.5] kg; height = 1.77 [0.09] m) performed 3 trials of a track start dive, CMJ, track start CMJ, CMBJ, track start broad jump, and isometric midthigh pull. Results: Data were separated into pooled (females and males combined), females, and males. Large to very large correlations were found between DD and all variables tested for pooled data (r = .554–.853, P < .001–.008), with DD-CMBJ displaying the highest correlation (r = .853, P < .001). CMBJ accounted for 70% of the variance in DD. Females demonstrated moderate nonsignificant correlations between DD isometric midthigh pull (r = .379, P < .125). Males demonstrated very large significant correlations between DD-CMJ (r = .761, P < .001). Conclusions: DD demonstrated strong correlations with jump performances and multijoint isometric force production in pooled data. Males showed stronger correlations than females due to being stronger and being able to perform the jumping/strength tasks to a higher standard. Enhanced jump performance and increased maximal force production may, therefore, enhance DD in swimmers.
Luca Pollastri, Gabriele Gallo, Milena Zucca, Luca Filipas, Antonio La Torre, Ugo Riba, Luigi Molino and Elisabetta Geda
Background: The effects of anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) on endurance exercise performance are not yet fully understood. Different stimulated areas and low focality of classical tDCS technique may have led to discordant results. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of a bilateral anodal high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the cycling time-trial (TT) performance and physiological and perceptual response at moderate intensity in elite cyclists. Methods: A total of 8 elite cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption: 72.2 [4.3] mL·min−1·kg−1) underwent in a double-blind, counterbalanced, and randomized order the experimental treatment (HD-tDCS) or control treatment (SHAM). After 20 minutes of receiving either HD-tDCS on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3 and F4) or SHAM stimulation, the participants completed a constant-load trial (CLT) at 75% of the second ventilatory threshold. Thereafter, they performed a simulated 15-km TT. The ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate, cadence, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio were recorded during the CLT; the ratings of perceived exertion and heart rate were recorded during the TT. Results: The total time to complete the TT was 1.3% faster (HD-tDCS: 1212  s vs SHAM: 1228  s; P = .04) and associated with a higher heart rate (P < .001) and a tendency toward higher mean power output (P = .05). None of the physiological and perceptual variables measured during the CLT highlighted differences between the HD-tDCS and SHAM condition. Conclusions: The findings suggest that bilateral HD-tDCS on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves cycling TT performance without altering the physiological and perceptual response at moderate intensity, indicating that an upregulation of the prefrontal cortex could enhance endurance exercise performance.
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and Jill Pawlowski
Joseph O.C. Coyne, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff
Purpose: A simple and 2 different exponentially weighted moving average methods were used to investigate the relationships between internal training load and elite weightlifting performance. Methods: Training impulse data (sessional ratings of perceived exertion × training duration) were collected from 21 elite weightlifters (age = 26.0 [3.2] y, height = 162.2 [11.3] cm, body mass = 72.2 [23.8] kg, previous 12-mo personal best total 96.3% [2.7%] of world record total) during the 8 weeks prior to the 2016 Olympic Games qualifying competition. The amount of training modified or cancelled due to injury/illness was also collected. The training stress balance (TSB) and acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR) were calculated with the 3 moving average methods. Along with the amount of modified training, TSB and ACWR across the moving average methods were then examined for their relationship to competitive performance. Results: There were no consistent associations between performance and training load on the day of competition. The volatility (SD) of the ACWR in the last 21 days preceding the competition was moderately correlated with performance across moving average methods (r = −.41 to .48, P = .03–.07). TSB and ACWR volatility in the last 21 days were also significantly lower for successful performers but only as a simple moving average (P = .03 and .03, g = 1.15 and 1.07, respectively). Conclusions: Practitioners should consider restricting change and volatility in an athlete’s TSB or ACWR in the last 21 days prior to a major competition. In addition, a simple moving average seemed to better explain elite weightlifting performance than the exponentially weighted moving averages in this investigation.
Craig Pickering and John Kiely
Purpose: The genetic influence on the attainment of elite athlete status is well established, with a number of polymorphisms found to be more common in elite athletes than in the general population. As such, there is considerable interest in understanding whether this information can be utilized to identify future elite athletes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare the total genotype scores of 5 elite athletes to those of nonathletic controls, to subsequently determine whether genetic information could discriminate between these groups, and, finally, to suggest how these findings may inform debates relating to the potential for genotyping to be used as a talent-identification tool. Methods: The authors compared the total genotype scores for both endurance (68 genetic variants) and speed-power (48 genetic variants) elite athlete status of 5 elite track-and-field athletes, including an Olympic champion, to those of 503 White European nonathletic controls. Results: Using the speed-power total genotype score, the elite speed-power athletes scored higher than the elite endurance athletes; however, using this speed-power score, 68 nonathletic controls registered higher scores than the elite power athletes. Surprisingly, using the endurance total genotype score, the elite speed-power athletes again scored higher than the elite endurance athletes. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic information is not capable of accurately discriminating between elite athletes and nonathletic controls, illustrating that the use of such information as a talent-identification tool is currently unwarranted and ineffective.
E. Andrew Pitchford and E. Kipling Webster
The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) measures fundamental motor skills competency and is frequently used for eligibility determination of adapted physical education services in children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine if the TGMD-3 is clinically sensitive to detect deficits in the fundamental motor skills of children with disabilities (i.e., intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, language and articulation disorders). Eighty-five children with disabilities and 85 matched controls (i.e., typically developing, individually matched on age, sex, ethnicity, and race) completed the TGMD-3. Mann–Whitney U tests identified significant differences in the total TGMD-3 scores for children with intellectual disability (p < .001), autism spectrum disorder (p < .001), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p = .032). No differences were identified for children with language and articulation disorders. Comparisons of subscales (i.e., locomotor and ball skills) differed across disability groups. This study provides evidence that the TGMD-3 is clinically sensitive to identify deficits in fundamental motor skills competency.
Dajo Sanders and Teun van Erp
Background: A variety of intensity, load, and performance measures (eg, “power profile”) have been used to characterize the demands of professional cycling races with differing stage types. An increased understanding of the characteristics of these races could provide valuable insight for practitioners toward the design of training strategies to optimally prepare for these demands. However, current reviews within this area are outdated and do not include a recent influx of new articles describing the demands of professional cycling races. Purpose: To provide an updated overview of the intensity and load demands and power profile of professional cycling races. Typically adopted measures are introduced and their results summarized. Conclusion: There is a clear trend in the research that stage type significantly influences the intensity, load, and power profile of races with more elevation gain typically resulting in a higher intensity and load and longer-duration power outputs (ie, >10 min). Flat and semimountainous stages are characterized by higher maximal mean power outputs over shorter durations (ie, <2 min). Furthermore, single-day races tend to have a higher (daily) intensity and load compared with stages within multiday races. Nevertheless, while the presented mean (grouped) data provide some indications on the demands of these races and differences between varying competition elements, a limited amount of research is available describing the “race-winning efforts” in these races, and this is proposed as an important area for future research. Finally, practitioners should consider the limitations of each metric individually, and a multivariable approach to analyzing races is advocated.
Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin
Purpose: To investigate whether providing athletes with a choice regarding the number of repetitions to complete in a potentiation protocol would enhance jumping performance compared with protocols in which the number of repetitions is predetermined. Methods: Fifteen male basketball players completed 4 testing sessions separated by 72 hours. In the first session, individual optimum power loads in the barbell jump squat were determined. In the following 3 sessions, the athletes completed 3 sets of 3 potentiation protocols using optimum power load jump squats in a partly randomized order: (1) The traditional condition included 6 repetitions per set, (2) the self-selected condition included a choice regarding the number of repetitions to complete per set, and (3) the imposed condition included the same number of repetitions per set as the self-selected condition, but the number was imposed on the athletes beforehand. The jumping performance was determined as jump squat test height and measured using a force platform before and 30 seconds, 4 minutes, and 8 minutes after completing the protocols. Results: The self-selected condition led to superior jumping performance compared with the 2 other conditions across all post measures (P < .05; range: 0.3–1.3 cm). Compared with the traditional condition, the imposed condition led to superior jumping performance across all post measures (range: 0.2–0.45 cm), although not statistically significant at post 4 minutes and post 8 minutes. Conclusions: Choice provision concerning how many repetitions to complete in a potentiation protocol is a useful performance-enhancing strategy. Improved potentiation–fatigue ratio and motivational factors are sought to explain these effects.