Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 28,305 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Hayley M. Ericksen and Rachele E. Vogelpohl

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes is common. Team sport athletes experience more ACL injuries than ballet and modern dancers. Examining biomechanical differences between these two groups may help to explain the discrepancy in ACL injury rates. The purpose of this study was to examine lower extremity kinematic differences between collegiate dancers and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer athletes during a rebound jump-landing task. Peak hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during a jump-landing task. Results showed more knee flexion and less ankle eversion in the dancers compared to the soccer athletes. Differences in training and strategies used during landing may explain the kinematic differences between groups.

Restricted access

David Eitle, Steven Swinford and Abagail Klonsinski

Using data from the Add Health, the authors consider whether male high school sport participation had an association with intimate partner violence perpetration into adulthood, controlling for other known predictors. Results show that sport participation is associated with a reduced risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence in adulthood, which the authors interpret as generally supportive of the deterrence hypothesis, the notion that playing sport promotes prosocial values, increases supervision, and increases bonding to conventional institutions that lower the risk of engaging in violent behavior against women. However, the inclusion of measures representing this hypothesis failed to attenuate the sport participation–intimate partner violence association, raising questions about whether the deterrence hypothesis is the appropriate explanation.

Restricted access

Madison Ardizzi, Brian Wilson, Lyndsay Hayhurst and Janet Otte

Bicycles have been hailed by the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations for use in social and economic development. However, there is a lacuna of research exploring the value of bicycles for development (BFD) outside of Europe and America. Specifically, there is a lack of research on the structure and perspectives of BFD organizations. This study draws on 19 semistructured interviews with BFD organizations in various regions of Uganda. We found that (a) BFD organizations exist along a spectrum from community-based to international, (b) the meanings ascribed to the bicycle are unstable and context dependent, and (c) that there were a range of ways that bicycles were seen to lead to positive outcomes—although barriers to attaining these outcomes were identified too. The authors conclude by suggesting that while bicycles are considered useful for a range of development purposes, perspectives on their usefulness vary—as inequalities commonly associated with sport for development are evident in the BFD movement too.

Restricted access

Timóteo Daca, António Prista, Francisco Tchonga, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, Felipe F. Reichert, Paulo Farinatti and Go Tani

Time spent in different Physical Activity (PA) Intensities of 72 Mozambican older adult women (67 ± 7 years old) was assessed by means of triaxial accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and participants were stratified based on their body mass index, as being normal weight (NW, n = 23); overweight (n = 16); or obese (OB, n = 33). Overall, most daily time was spent in sedentary activities (614 ± 111 min or 69.1%) and light PA (181 ± 56 min or 20.2%). On average, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was performed during 10.6% of the day (93 ± 44 min). Time spent in MVPA was significantly higher in the NW compared to OB category (112.8 ± 51.5 vs. 81.0 ± 36.3; p = .021). The overweight group did not differ in time spent in MVPA when compared to NW and OB group. Overall, 75% of the participants spent more than 60 min a day in MVPA (NW: 83%; overweight: 81%; OB: 67%). Pearson’s correlation between body mass index and total MVPA controlling for age was −.39 (p < .001). It was concluded that Mozambican older adult women living in urban and rural areas of Maputo province engaged in relatively high Physical Activity Intensities compared with individuals of similar ages in high-income countries, regardless of their nutritional status.

Restricted access

Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Nicole T. Gabana, Brandon T. Cooper and Martin A. Swanbrow Becker

Student-athletes are susceptible to mental health problems that disrupt optimal functioning and well-being. Despite having many protective factors, student-athletes represent an at-risk subgroup of college students who experience mental health concerns due to the distress of balancing multiple obligations. However, many student-athletes underutilize psychological services. Stigma is the main barrier preventing student-athletes from seeking help, and mental health literacy (MHL) interventions addressing knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders have traditionally been used to destigmatize mental illness. This study investigated the impact of a 4-week program on stigma, MHL, and attitudes and intentions toward seeking help with 33 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes. The program was composed of four science-based interventions—MHL, empathy, counter stereotyping, and contact—delivered face-to-face within a group setting. MHL, attitudes toward seeking help, and intentions to seek counseling improved from preintervention to postintervention and to 1-month follow-up. Self-stigma was reduced from preintervention to postintervention.

Restricted access

Yijian Yang, Kimberley S. van Schooten, Heather A. McKay, Joanie Sims-Gould, Raymond A. Hoang and Stephen N. Robinovitch

The objective of this study was to explore and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness and implementation of recreational therapy programs to enhance mobility outcomes (e.g., balance, functional performance, fall incidence) for older adults in long-term care. The authors conducted a scoping review of 66 studies following the PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers evaluated each article, and a third reviewer resolved discrepancies. Randomized controlled studies provided strong to moderate evidence that tai chi programs, walking, dancing, and ball games improve flexibility, functional mobility, and balance. Studies assessing program implementation highlighted that program delivery was facilitated by clear instruction, encouragement, attendance documentation, and minimal equipment. This review elucidated the benefit of recreational therapy programs on mobility. It also identified the need for customized programs based on individuals’ interests and their physical and mental abilities. These findings and recommendations will assist practitioners in designing effective and feasible recreational therapy programs for long-term care.

Open access

Sarah Deans, Alison Kirk, Anthony McGarry and David Rowe

Introduction: Accurate measurement of physical behavior in adults with lower limb absence is essential to report true patterns of physical behavior and the effectiveness of interventions. The effect of placing accelerometers on prostheses may also affect the reliability and validity. Purpose: To assess reliability and criterion-related validity of the activPAL for measuring incidental and purposeful stepping, and reclining and stepping time in adults with unilateral lower limb absence. Methods: 15 adults with unilateral lower limb absence completed simulated lifestyle activities in a laboratory setting that were retrospectively scored via video analysis. Objective data were obtained simultaneously from two activPAL monitors placed on the sound and prosthetic side. Data were analyzed using one-way intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-tests and Cohen’s d. Results: Reliability (prosthetic side vs. sound side) was poor for incidental steps (ICC = .05, d = 0.48) but acceptable for all other measures (ICC = .77–.88; d = .00–.18). Mean activPAL measures, although highly related to the criterion, underestimated, on average, stepping and time-related variables. Differences were large for all stepping variables (d = .38–.96). Conclusions: The activPAL is a reliable measurement tool in adults with lower limb absence when used in a laboratory setting. Placement of the monitor on the sound side limb is recommended for testing. The activPAL shows evidence of relative validity, but not absolute validity. Further evaluation is needed to assess whether similar evidence is found in free-living activity and sedentary contexts.

Restricted access

Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares and Alda Marques

The aim of this study was to explore respiratory function and upper extremity functional activity in people with dementia (PWD) and the associations between these variables and cognitive function (n = 22 institutionalized PWD, 28 community-dwelling PWD, and 26 healthy older people). All measures were significantly lower in PWD who live in an institution, such as a nursing home or long-term care facility or who attend adult daycare than PWD who live in a community dwelling . The values from these two groups were significantly lower than those from healthy older people. Moderate to high negative correlations between upper extremity functional activity and respiratory function (−.73 < r s < −.49) and cognitive function (r s = −.83), and between cognitive function and respiratory function (−.74 < rs < −.58) were identified (p < .001). When adjusted for cognitive function (−.38 < rs < −.29; p < .05), the association between upper limb functional activity and respiratory function decreased. The decline demonstrates the importance of physical activity and cognitive and respiratory function in PWD.

Restricted access

Yoko Kanemasu

This article explores the nexus between power, sport, and disability with a focus on Deaf rugby in Fiji. Based on semistructured interviews with players, officials, and stakeholders, this article outlines their pursuit of rugby and participation in a recent international tournament under Fiji’s specific postcolonial social conditions. It examines what this experience means to the players and officials, and the sociopolitical significance it holds in the multiple relations of power that the game is embedded in. This article shows Deaf rugby as a significant counterhegemonic force that reconfigures Fiji’s rugby discourse by appropriating its key constitutive element: anti-imperialist modern nationalism. This article further explores Deaf rugby’s implication in prevailing gender/ethnoracial/corporeal politics with a view to offering nuanced insights into the question of resistance in/through disability sport in a Global South context.

Restricted access

Seungho Woo, Hwan Son and Karam Lee

Zainichi Koreans are a unique political product of the Korean Peninsula. They were taken to Japan under the Japanese occupation (1910–45) of Korea and stayed there without becoming naturalized Japanese citizens. Baseball was a mechanism for the children of Zainichi Koreans, who were oppressed on Japanese soil, to overcome the discrimination they were experiencing in their daily lives and assimilate into Japanese society. From 1956 to 1970, South Korean newspapers invited Zainichi Korean children playing baseball to their home country for regular national baseball exchanges. This event provided nourishment for the growth of Korean baseball and served as the only cultural bridge for Zainichi Korean children to experience and understand their motherland, which they had previously only imagined.