Between-limb deficits in vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) production continue to remain years after anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, resulting in altered dynamic stability. However, the challenge is in identifying ways to assess this between-limb stability. This study implemented second-order autoregressive [AR(2)] modeling and its stationarity triangle to both quantitatively and visually delineate differences in dynamic stability from peak vGRF data in controls and post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) individuals during running. It was hypothesized that post-ACLR individuals would exhibit less dynamic stability than the controls, and that they would reside in a different location on the stationarity triangle, thus denoting differences in stability. The results presented supported the hypothesis that post-ACLR individuals exhibited significantly less dynamic stability than their control counterparts based on their model coefficients (AR1 P < .01; AR2 P = .02). These findings suggested that the post-ACLR individuals adopted a similar running pattern, possibly due to muscle weakness asymmetry, which was less dynamically stable and potentially places them at greater risk for injury. The ability of this approach to both quantitatively and visually delineate differences between these 2 groups indicates its potential as a return-to-sport decision tool.
Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson
The purpose of the study was to compare the tibiofemoral contact forces of participants with chronic ankle instability versus controls during landings using a computer-simulated musculoskeletal model. A total of 21 female participants with chronic ankle instability and 21 pair-matched controls performed a drop landing task on a tilted force plate. A 7-camera motion capture system and 2 force plates were used to test participants’ lower-extremity biomechanics. A musculoskeletal model was used to calculate the tibiofemoral contact forces (femur on tibia). No significant between-group differences were observed for the peak tibiofemoral contact forces (P = .25–.48) during the landing phase based on paired t tests. The group differences ranged from 0.05 to 0.58 body weight (BW). Most participants demonstrated a posterior force (peak, ∼1.1 BW) for most duration of the landing phase and a medial force (peak, ∼0.9 BW) and large compressive force (peak, ∼10 BW) in the landing phase. The authors conclude that chronic ankle instability may not be related to the increased tibiofemoral contact forces or knee injury mechanisms during landings on the tilted surface.
Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross
Evidence for the mechanisms of change by which sport psychology interventions enhance performance is limited and treatment monitoring and outcomes measures would assist in establishing evidence-based practices. The present paper fills a gap in sport psychology literature by demonstrating the development and validation of a new measure (Sport Psychology Outcomes and Research Tool; SPORT). Study 1 described test construction and pilot item selection with 73 collegiate student-athletes. Twenty-three pilot items contributed unique variance while maintaining the original constructs and were selected from 80 initial items. In Study 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with collegiate student-athletes (n = 220), revealing a 17-item, four-factor model measuring Athlete Wellbeing, Self-Regulation, Performance Satisfaction, and Sport-Related Distress. Concurrent validity was supported through correlational analyses. Overall, results supported the SPORT as a new transtheoretical tool for monitoring effectiveness and outcomes of sport psychology interventions.
Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow
Well-being research conducted in competitive athletics has been marred by the lack of a context-specific measurement instrument. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) to create a sport-specific well-being instrument, the Sport Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (Sport MHC-SF), and test its initial psychometric properties. Participants were 287 collegiate athletes from a variety of sports. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) determined a three-factor structure of sport well-being, consisting of subjective, psychological, and social factors, as the model of best fit. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales exceeded .88. Moderate positive correlations were found between Sport MHC-SF subscales and quality of life indices, notably physical and emotional quality of life, demonstrating convergent validity. The Sport MHC-SF will facilitate empirical research by providing a more accurate and comprehensive measurement of well-being for an athletic population.
Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, HyeYoung Cho, Nathaniel L. Romine and Jeffrey M. Haddad
Holding an object has been found to reduce postural sway during quiet standing. However, people normally stand to accomplish suprapostural goals, such as fitting a key into a lock. Postural control should therefore be assessed by examining postural outcomes in the context of suprapostural task performance. This study assessed whether holding an object increased standing postural stability and improved the performance of a concurrent precision manual task. A total of 15 young adults performed a precision manual task with their dominant hand while holding or not holding an object in their nondominant hand. Postural stability was assessed using measures of postural sway and time to boundary. Suprapostural task performance was assessed as an error count. Holding did not influence postural sway or suprapostural task performance. Discrepancies among previous studies coupled with the present findings suggest that the effects of holding an object on standing posture are highly sensitive to the experimental context. The authors provide several explanations for their findings and discuss the limitations of previous suggestions that holding an object may have clinical relevance for balance-compromised populations.
Bradley Donohue, Marina Galante, Julia Maietta, Bern Lee, Nina Paul, Joanne E. Perry, Arianna Corey and Daniel N. Allen
The conspicuous absence of validated screening measures specific to mental health symptomology in collegiate athletes has negatively affected clinical practice in this population. Therefore, this study was performed to develop a sport specific measure to optimally identify collegiate athletes who are particularly likely to benefit from mental health programming. Participants were 289 collegiate-athletes who were assessed for mental health symptomology using the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (GSI), factors that interfere with sport performance using the Problems in Sport Competition Scale (PSCS) and Problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS), and motivation to pursue professional counseling using the Desire to Pursue Sport Psychology Scale (DSPS). As hypothesized, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that PSCS, PSTS and DSPS scores significantly predicted GSI scores, controlling gender and sport status (NCAA, club, intramural). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that high-risk athletes (GSI T-scores ≥ 60) could be correctly classified by PSTS and PSCS scores. Results suggest the PSCS and PSTS may assist identification of collegiate athletes who are especially appropriate for mental health programs. These scales additionally identify factors directly relevant to athletes’ sport performance.
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang
This manuscript seeks to offer insight about how coaches can better address drinking among collegiate student-athletes. Using a mixed-methods design, 519 NCAA coaches reported their attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking, and responded to open-ended questions about their perceived role, strategies, and challenges to addressing problems in this population. Three dimensions of coaches’ attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking emerged that were consistent regardless of the players’ or coach’s gender or division: Concerned Communication, Conditional Leniency, and Enforcement. Effective strategies identified by coaches included enforcement of policy, education about consequences of drinking, establishment of quality coach-athlete relationships, and management of athletes’ schedules. Coaches indicated the need to play a role in managing, educating, influencing, and supporting the student-athletes to prevent alcohol misuse. Coaches reported challenges regarding the culture of drinking on college campuses, individual differences (e.g., age) among student-athletes, acceptance and enforcement of the alcohol policy, lack of awareness about student-athletes’ activities, and identification of alcohol misuse.
Jennifer A. Hogg, Randy J. Schmitz and Sandra J. Shultz
Clinical femoral anteversion (Craig test) and hip range of motion (ROM) have been associated with valgus collapse, but their clinical usefulness in predicting biomechanics is unknown. Our purpose was to determine the individual and combined predictive power of femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM on 3-dimensional valgus collapse (hip internal rotation and adduction, knee rotation, and abduction) during a single-leg forward landing in females. Femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM were measured on 20 females (24.9 [4.1] y, 168.7 [8.0] cm, 63.8 [11.6] kg). Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected over 5 trials of the task. Each variable was averaged across trials. Backward, stepwise regressions determined the extent to which our independent variables were associated with valgus collapse. The combination of greater hip internal and external rotation ROM (partial r = .52 and .56) predicted greater peak knee internal rotation moment (R 2 = .38, P = .02). Less hip internal rotation ROM (partial r = −.44) predicted greater peak knee abduction moments (R 2 = .20, P = .05). Greater total hip ROM (internal and external rotation ROM) was not consistently associated with combined motions of valgus collapse but was indicative of isolated knee moments. Passive hip ROM is more associated with knee moments than is femoral anteversion as measured with Craig test.
Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand and Geoff P. Lovell
This study investigated triathletes’ metacognitions and mindfulness traits (N = 232) measured prior to competition, and flow (N = 63), post competition. The primary aim was to investigate whether metacognitions (measured by the Metacognitions Questionnaire) would associate with mindfulness facets (measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire – Short Form), and metacognitions would also predict flow scores (measured by the Short Flow State Scale), over and above mindfulness facets. Regression analyses showed that metacognitions individually predicted mindfulness facets. A hierarchical regression showed that positive beliefs about worry negatively predicted flow, while a lack of cognitive confidence, beliefs about the need for thought control and acting with awareness positively predicted flow. These findings indicate that a) metacognitive beliefs are influential to cognitive predispositions, b) typically dysfunctional metacognitions may play a different role in competitive environments, and c) metacognitions may play a more important role in the occurrence of flow, than mindfulness.