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Jessica L. Kutz, Melissa Bopp and Lori A. Gravish Hurtack

As the need for qualified medical and allied health professions has grown, so too have the natural feeder undergraduate programs of kinesiology across the country. With an impending “enrollment cliff,” it is necessary to assess the needs of our students and be proactive in addressing curricular issues, initiatives, internship opportunities, and academic advising support. The purpose of this article is to highlight formal and informal data collection strategies and suggest solutions to undergraduate issues that pertain to retention and success. Data from current students and alumni shed light on issues that plague kinesiology programs and present unique challenges to students as they attempt to pursue careers in the medical and allied health fields. Two R1 kinesiology programs identified similarly themed issues using informal and formal data collection approaches. Those themes were undergraduate major identification, career options, curricular issues, financial concern, and emotional fortitude. Suggested solutions and current best practices are provided to address the common themes that hold our undergraduates back from achieving their career goals.

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Bradley J. Cardinal

Concerns about college and university student health date back to at least the mid-19th century. These concerns were addressed through the development and implementation of required, service-based physical activity education programs. In the 1920s–1930s, 97% of American colleges and universities offered such programs. Today less than 40% do. However, student health issues persist. This essay asserts that kinesiology departments are best suited to address these needs by delivering physical activity education courses through their institution’s general education curriculum. General education courses are those that every student must take in order to develop the competencies necessary for living a full and complete life and contributing to society. Given the growing costs of higher education, any such requirement must be justifiable. Therefore, implementing and sustaining a physical activity education general education requirement is not for the faint of heart; it requires effort, resources, support, and time. This essay explores these issues.

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Anna Gabriela Silva Vilela Ribeiro, Rozangela Verlengia, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira, Matheus Valério Almeida Oliveira, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti and Alex Harley Crisp

This study aimed to investigate the association between compliance with the guidelines of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in bouts of ≥10 min or nonbouts with body composition and physical function in older adults. The authors evaluated 230 noninstitutionalized older adults. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedance, and physical function was assessed using four physical tests. Physical activities were monitored for 7 days using an accelerometer. Older adults who were physically active according to MVPA in bouts of ≥10 min were less likely to have low appendicular skeletal muscle mass (odds ratio [OR] = 0.12), excess body fat (OR = 0.30), and abdominal obesity (OR = 0.34) and more likely to have a higher physical function (OR = 5.78). No significant association was observed with MVPA nonbout. Our findings indicate that older adults who accumulate MVPA in bouts of  ≥10 min have better parameters for body composition and physical function.

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Meredith J. Luttrell, Benjamin R. Mardis, Joshua M. Bock, Erika Iwamoto, Satoshi Hanada, Kenichi Ueda, Andrew J. Feider, Kenzie Temperly and Darren Casey

The balance of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiostatic factors, like thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and endostatin, controls striated muscle angiogenic responses to exercise training. The effect of age on circulating levels of these factors following a bout of exercise is unclear. The authors hypothesized that older adults would have lower circulating VEGF but higher TSP-1 and endostatin after exercise compared with young adults. Ten young and nine older participants cycled for 45 min at 60% estimated HRmax. Serum [VEGF], [TSP-1], and [endostatin] obtained before (PREX), immediately after (POSTX0), and 3 hr after (POSTX3) exercise were analyzed. [VEGF] increased in older adults only from PREX to POSTX0 (p < .05). [TSP-1] increased in both age groups (p < .05). There was no effect of age or exercise on [endostatin]. In conclusion, immediately after exercise, both groups had a similar increase in [TSP-1], but [VEGF] increased in older adults only.

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Beatriz Caruso Soares, Jéssica Maria Ribeiro Bacha, Daniel Donadio Mello, Emerson Galves Moretto, Tatiana Fonseca, Karina Santos Vieira, Amanda Franchi de Lima, Belinda Lange, Camila Torriani-Pasin, Roseli de Deus Lopes and José Eduardo Pompeu

Objective: To analyze the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of immersive virtual tasks. Methods: The authors recruited 11 young adults and 10 older adults. The participants performed three virtual reaching tasks while walking on a virtual path. The descriptive analysis and comparison between participants were performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and chi-square test for nonparametric and nominal variables, respectively. The authors also used analysis of variance for a between-groups comparison for normal variables. Results: Twenty percent of older adults and 81.8% of young adults completed all three tasks (chi-square test; p = .005). Both groups reported minor symptoms, with no significant differences. The older adults were more motivated to practice the tasks (Mann–Whitney U test; p = .015) and would be more likely to suggest them to others (chi-square test; p = .034). Conclusion: All three tasks were feasible for young adults. All participants, except for one, had cybersickness. The symptoms were mostly mild and subsided once the interaction was complete.

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Bruno de Souza Moreira, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Luciana de Souza Braga, Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Juliana Lustosa Torres, Maria Fernanda Furtado Lima-Costa and Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

The study goal was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and walking in urban older adults in Brazil. A cross-sectional study including 4,027 older adults from the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) was performed. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood characteristics were questions about physical disorder, noise pollution, safety, violence, social cohesion, services, concerns with community mobility, and pleasantness. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Concern about taking the bus, subway, or train was inversely associated with walking for men. Violence (victim of theft, robbery, or had home broken into) and social cohesion (trust in neighbors) were positively and inversely associated with walking for women, respectively. A significant interaction term between social cohesion and number of chronic diseases was observed for women. These findings demonstrate the need for sex-specific interventions and policies to increase the walking levels among older Brazilian adults.

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

This research examines physical activity (PA) parameters among urban-living middle-aged and older Japanese during the Tokyo Olympic build-up period. Population sampling was employed, and an online survey was administered with 4,000 adults across Japan’s five largest cities. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form constituted the main outcome variable, with auxiliary measures of Olympic interest and engagement, readiness for PA behavior change, perceived environmental barriers, and demographic information. Despite interest in the Olympics (>60% moderate–high interest), planned engagement with the event was low (>70% planned passive engagement). Higher levels of interest and planned engagement were both significantly correlated with greater self-reported PA participation (p < .001). Across the sample, the PA levels were in the low–moderate range (990 metabolic equivalent of task-min/week), with significant variations observed by the age-cohort and geographic area (p < .001). Age-cohort and geographic variations were also identified with regard to readiness for PA behavior change and perceived environmental barriers to activity (p < .001). Older age (65 years and above) and host city (Tokyo) residence emerged as correlates of higher levels of PA, greater readiness for behavior change, and fewer reported barriers to participation. These findings have implications for Olympic legacy management and successful transitions from middle age to later life in Japan.

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Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the psychological factors that might predict the sedentary behavior of 654 older adults from the South Region of Brazil. The participants were evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; Mini-Mental State Exam; Geriatric Anxiety Scale; and the scales Geriatric Depression, Purpose in Life, Perceived Stress, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Life. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis (p < .05). No significant (p > .05) correlation was found between the sedentary behavior variables with self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis revealed that psychological variables explained 6% of the variance of sitting time during the week (R 2 = .06; F = 11.546; p < .01). Depression showed a positive prediction (β = −0.10; p = .040), while life satisfaction (β = −0.16; p = .001) and purpose in life (β = −0.10; p = .026) showed negative prediction. Psychological variables predicted only 3% of the variance of sitting time during the weekend (R 2 = .03; F = 5.629; p < .01), showing that life satisfaction had significant (p = .007) and negative (β = −0.13) association. Life satisfaction and purpose in life can be considered protector factors to sedentary behavior, while depression is a potentiating factor.

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José Oliveira-Santos, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, César Agostinis-Sobrinho and Jorge Mota

Background: To explore the associations between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from 6 months to 6 years of age, with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity, and sedentary time in adolescence. Methods: Retrospective school-based study with 539 adolescents (292 girls), mean age of 13.94 (1.62) years. Anthropometric data from birth up to 6 years were extracted from individual child health booklets. CRF was estimated by 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Results: Birth weight was not associated with any outcome measured in adolescence. From the age of 6 months onwards in girls, and from 3 years in boys, BMI associated inversely with CRF in adolescence. In girls, BMI (at 12 mo and at 3 y of age) associated positively with sedentary time in adolescence, but not with physical activity. In boys, positive associations between BMI at the ages of 3, 5, and 6 years old and time spent in some intensities of physical activity in adolescence were found. Conclusions: BMI during the early years was negatively associated with CRF in adolescence, in a consistent way, for both genders, but with physical activity and sedentary time the associations were scarce and inconsistent, depending on the gender.

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Sandy J. Slater, Anmol Sanghera, Yadira Herrera and Jamie F. Chriqui

Background: Head Start serves over 1 million diverse low-income preschool children and is an ideal setting for developing and implementing obesity prevention efforts, which is expected to have positive impacts on behavior as youth age. This study examined how regional- and state-level Head Start offices have supported implementation of the recently updated physical activity (PA) requirement within the teaching and learning environment Head Start Program Performance Standard (1302.31). Methods: Key informant telephone interviews were conducted with 8 regional- and 36 state-level Head Start representatives. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Data were coded and analyzed using constant comparative methods in ATLAS.ti (version 8). Audit trails were maintained, and disagreements in codes were discussed and resolved among coders. Results: The following 3 overarching themes emerged: communication, resources and technical assistance, and challenges. Results showed variation in respondent knowledge regarding the Standards. Although regional contacts provide technical assistance, state-level contacts have many information sharing strategies for programs. Implementation challenges included the need for frequent professional development opportunities given staff turnover and low PA competency, and additional PA curricula. Conclusion: Findings can help identify existing or potential strategies that could be adopted more widely or developed to assist Head Start programs incorporate PA into daily activities.