Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 16,611 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
Clear All
Open access

Jerry Öhlin, Yngve Gustafson, Håkan Littbrand, Birgitta Olofsson and Annika Toots

Improving dementia screening procedures beyond simple assessment of current cognitive performance is timely given the ongoing phenomenon of population aging. A slow or declining gait speed (GS) is a potential early indicator of cognitive decline scarcely investigated in very old people. Here, we investigated the 5-year associations of baseline GS, change in GS, and cognitive function with subsequent dementia development in people aged 85 years and older (n = 296) without dementia at baseline. Declining and a slow baseline GS were associated with higher odds of dementia development after adjusting for confounders (e.g., age, sex, and dependency in activities of daily living) and missing GS values at follow-up. The GS decline was associated with cognitive decline in participants who developed dementia. The results support the potential of GS tests to predict future cognitive decline among community- and nursing home-dwelling very old people.

Open access

Nobuaki Moriyama, Hajime Iwasa and Seiji Yasumura

The aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived environment and physical activity among older adults in Fukushima Prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the impact of evacuation. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 65 years and older from October to November 2018. Perceived environment was assessed using a five-item questionnaire on home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, and frequency of observing others exercising. Physical activity, assessed via the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese, was segregated into levels based on the median score. Data from 249 participants (74.2 ± 6.9 years) were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis found that the unenjoyable Scenery × Residing in restoration public housing interaction (odds ratio = 3.87, 95% confidence interval = [1.20, 12.46]) was significant. The association between enjoyable scenery and physical activity varied according to whether the participants had experienced evacuation or not.

Restricted access

Marcel Ballin, Peter Nordström and Anna Nordström

In this cross-sectional study, the authors investigated the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older adults. Accelerometer-derived light-intensity PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and steps per day were measured in (N = 4,652) 70-year-olds in Umeå, Sweden, during May 2012–November 2019. The MetS was assessed according to the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 49.3%. Compared with the reference, the odds ratios for MetS in increasing quartiles of light-intensity PA were 0.91 (0.77–1.09), 0.75 (0.62–0.89), and 0.66 (0.54–0.80). For moderate to vigorous PA, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.79 (0.66–0.94), 0.67 (0.56–0.80), and 0.56 (0.46–0.67). For steps per day, the odds ratios were 0.65 (0.55–0.78), 0.55 (0.46–0.65), and 0.45 (0.36–0.55). In summary, this study shows that greater amounts of PA, regardless of intensity, are associated with lower odds of MetS. With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings may have implications for the prevention of MetS in older adults.

Restricted access

Elaine M. Ori, Tanya R. Berry and Lira Yun

It is unknown how lifelong digital media users such as young adult women perceive exercise information found online. A total of 141 women aged 18–30 years and residing in Canada were randomized to read either a factually incorrect or a factually correct blog article. Participants completed Go/No-Go tasks to measure automatically activated believability and evaluations and questionnaires to explicitly measure believability, affective evaluations, and intentions to exercise. Participants did not show evidence of automatically activated believability of the content found in either blog article. However, participants reading the factually correct article reported significantly greater explicit disbelief than those reading the factually incorrect article, though this did not predict intentions. Being factually correct may not be an important component of message believability. Exercise professionals need to remain aware of the content of popular online sources of information in an effort to curb misinformation.

Restricted access

Rachel Cholerton, Helen Quirk, Jeff Breckon and Joanne Butt

Adults aged 55+ years are most likely to be inactive, despite research suggesting that older adults experience multiple benefits when participating in physical activity and sport. Limited research focuses on long-term continuation of sport participation in this population, especially in “adapted sports” like walking football. This study explored the experiences of walking football maintenance in 55- to 75-year-old players. Semistructured interviews were conducted, with 17 older adults maintaining walking football play over 6 months. The inductive analysis revealed five higher-order themes representing maintenance influences and two higher-order themes relating to maintenance mechanisms (i.e., the conscious process by which players maintain). Influences when maintaining walking football included individual- and culture-level influences (e.g., perceived benefits of maintenance and ability acceptance). Maintenance mechanisms included cognitions and behaviors (e.g., scheduling sessions and redefining physical activity expectations). Findings highlight novel implications for policy and practice, which are important to consider when delivering walking football to older adults.

Restricted access

Nicholas L. Holt, Helene Jørgensen and Colin J. Deal

The purpose of this study was to identify and examine how sport parents engage in autonomy-supportive parenting in the family home setting. A total of 44 parents and children from 19 families were initially interviewed. Data from these families were profiled to identify seven families that adopted a highly autonomy-supportive parenting style. The seven families’ data were then examined using a theoretically focused qualitative analysis using the three dimensions of autonomy-supportive parenting. Sport parents engaged in autonomy support (vs. control) through flexible conversations and supporting decision making. The themes of boundary setting and establishing expectations based on values were indicative of structure. The authors found high levels of involvement across contexts. These findings depict the nature and types of social interactions in the family home that created an autonomy-supportive emotional climate, which often extended to sport, providing a foundation for future theoretical development and applied research in sport.

Restricted access

Francisco Timbó de Paiva Neto, Gabriel Claudino Budal Arins, Eleonora d’Orsi and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

This study aims to examine the association between neighborhood environment attributes and changes in walking for transportation among older adults. Longitudinal analysis was performed considering a population-based study (EpiFloripa Idoso), carried out in 2009–2010 with follow-up in 2013–2014. Changes in walking, obtained with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire during both waves were associated with data from the environment perception, evaluated using individual items from the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (baseline only) performing multinomial logistic regression. A total of 1,162 older adults (65.2% women, mean age = 73.7 years) participated. Those who reported the presence of parks and squares (OR = 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.70, 3.51]), sidewalks (OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.03, 2.70]), crosswalks (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.05, 2.72]), illuminated streets (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.24, 6.33]), and safety for day walks (OR = 1.93, 95% CI [1.14, 3.24]) were more likely to remain active or become active when commuting (≥150 min/week). Older adults are more active in neighborhoods that present more favorable attributes regarding walking for transportation.

Restricted access

Fabio R. Serpiello and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose: To assess the convergent validity of internal load measured with the CR100 scale in youth football players of 3 age groups. Methods: A total of 59 players, age 12–17 years, from the youth academy of a professional football club were involved in this study. Convergent validity was examined by calculating the correlation between session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and Edwards load, a commonly used load index derived from the heart rate, with the data originating from 1 competitive season. The magnitude of the relationship between sRPE and Edwards load was obtained with weighted mean correlations and by assessing the effect of the change of the Edwards load on sRPE. Differences between the individuals’ intercepts and slopes were assessed by interpreting the SD representing the random effects (player identity and the interaction of player identity and scaled Edwards load). Probabilistic decisions about true (infinite sample) magnitudes accounting for sampling uncertainty were based on 1-sided hypothesis tests of substantial magnitudes, followed by reference Bayesian analysis. Results: Very high relationships exist between the sRPE and Edwards load across all age groups, with no meaningful differences in the magnitudes of the relationships between groups. Moderate to large differences between training sessions and games were found in the slopes of the relationships between the sRPE and Edwards load in all age groups. Finally, mostly small to moderate differences were observed between individuals for the intercepts and slopes of the relationships between the sRPE and Edwards load. Conclusion: Practitioners working in youth team sports can safely use the CR100 scale to track internal load.

Open access

Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco and David G. Behm

Restricted access

Aaron T. Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović, Zoran Milanović, Masaru Teramoto, Mario Jeličić and Vincent J. Dalbo

Purpose: To compare the aerobic capacity of elite female basketball players between playing roles and positions determined using maximal laboratory and field tests. Methods: Elite female basketball players from the National Croatian League were grouped according to playing role (starter: n = 8; bench: n = 12) and position (backcourt: n = 11; frontcourt: n = 9). All 20 players completed 2 maximal exercise tests in a crossover fashion 7 days apart. First, the players underwent a laboratory-based continuous running treadmill test with metabolic measurement to determine their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The players then completed a maximal field-based 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15 IFT) to estimate VO2peak. The VO2peak was compared using multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrap standard errors and playing role and position as predictors. Results: During both tests, starters attained a significantly higher VO2peak than bench players (continuous running treadmill: 47.4 [5.2] vs 44.7 [3.5] mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .05, moderate; 30-15 IFT: 44.9 [2.1] vs 41.9 [1.7] mL·kg−1·min−1, P < .001, large), and backcourt players attained a significantly higher VO2peak than frontcourt players (continuous running treadmill: 48.1 [3.8] vs 43.0 [3.3] mL·kg−1·min−1, P < .001, large; 30-15 IFT: 44.2 [2.2] vs 41.8 [2.0] mL·kg−1·min−1, P < .001, moderate). Conclusions: Starters (vs bench players) and guards (vs forwards and centers) possess a higher VO2peak irrespective of using laboratory or field tests. These data highlight the role- and position-specific importance of aerobic fitness to inform testing, training, and recovery practices in elite female basketball.