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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Alessandra Buja, Andrea Rabensteiner, Milena Sperotto, Giulia Grotto, Chiara Bertoncello, Silvia Cocchio, Tatjana Baldovin, Paolo Contu, Chiara Lorini and Vincenzo Baldo

Background: The importance of health literacy (HL) in health promotion is increasingly clear and acknowledged globally, especially when addressing noncommunicable diseases. This paper aimed to collect and summarize all current data from observational studies generating evidence of the association between HL and physical activity (PA) and to analyze intervention studies on the promotion of PA to ascertain whether HL moderates the efficacy of such intervention. Methods: A comprehensive systematic literature search of observational studies investigating the association between HL and PA was performed. Intervention studies on the promotion of PA that also measured the HL levels of participants and its effect on the outcome of the intervention were also identified. Results: Of the 22 studies included in this review, 18 found a significant positive association between high HL and high levels of PA. The only intervention study among them indicated that HL was not a significant moderator of the intervention’s effectiveness. Conclusion: HL can enable individuals to make deliberate choices about their PA and thus contribute to preventing many chronic noncommunicable diseases. That said, low levels of HL do not seem to influence the efficacy of health promotion interventions.

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Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham and Yin-Leng Theng

This study examined how different types of social interaction and competitive information in exergaming affect older adults’ motivation and attitude toward playing exergames. A 2 (time: pre- vs. posttest) × 3 (social interaction: play alone vs. play with peer vs. play with youth) × 2 (competition: competition informed vs. noncompetition informed) mixed experiment was conducted with 319 Singaporean older adults over 6 weeks through a three-way analysis of variance. Social interaction was found to significantly affect the changes of extrinsic motivation over time, while competitive information affected intrinsic motivation significantly. The results showed significant three-way interaction effects between time, social interaction, and competitive information on older adults’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. The changes of attitude over time were not affected by either social interaction or competitive information. The findings contribute to aging research and advance the knowledge of potential factors that promote the effective implementation of exergames for community older adults.

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Laurence Fruteau de Laclos, Marie-Josée Sirois, Andréanne Blanchette, Dominic Martel, Joannie Blais, Marcel Émond, Raoul Daoust and Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre

This study compared effects of exercise-based interventions with usual care on functional decline, physical performance, and health-related quality of life (12-item Short-Form health survey) at 3 and 6 months after minor injuries, in older adults discharged from emergency departments. Participants were randomized either to the intervention or control groups. The interventions consisted of 12-week exercise programs available in their communities. Groups were compared on cumulative incidences of functional decline, physical performances, and 12-item Short-Form health survey scores at all time points. Functional decline incidences were: intervention, 4.8% versus control, 15.4% (p = .11) at 3 months, and 5.3% versus 17.0% (p = .06) at 6 months. While the control group remained stable, the intervention group improved in Five Times Sit-To-Stand Test (3.0 ± 4.5 s, p < .01). The 12-item Short-Form health survey role physical score improvement was twice as high following intervention compared with control. Early exercises improved leg strength and reduced self-perceived limitations following a minor injury.

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Jamie Taylor and Dave Collins

There appears to be general agreement that interaction with significant challenge should be a central feature of the development pathways for future high performers. There is, however, far less clarity about how such programs should be designed and delivered against core psychological principles. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to offer guidelines for talent development practitioners seeking to offer athletes the opportunity to maximize their growth and development. The authors propose that genuinely developmental experiences will likely offer a level of emotional disturbance and, as a result, more fully engage performers, prompting self and other facilitated reflection, and motivate future action. Furthermore, there is a necessity for these experiences and their follow-up, to be managed in a coherent manner and integrated with existing skills, experience, and future performance aims. In highlighting these issues, the authors offer recommendations for talent development coaches, managers, psychologists, and parents of athletes.

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Anna Gabriela Silva Vilela Ribeiro, Rozangela Verlengia, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira, Matheus Valério Almeida Oliveira, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti and Alex Harley Crisp

This study aimed to investigate the association between compliance with the guidelines of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in bouts of ≥10 min or nonbouts with body composition and physical function in older adults. The authors evaluated 230 noninstitutionalized older adults. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedance, and physical function was assessed using four physical tests. Physical activities were monitored for 7 days using an accelerometer. Older adults who were physically active according to MVPA in bouts of ≥10 min were less likely to have low appendicular skeletal muscle mass (odds ratio [OR] = 0.12), excess body fat (OR = 0.30), and abdominal obesity (OR = 0.34) and more likely to have a higher physical function (OR = 5.78). No significant association was observed with MVPA nonbout. Our findings indicate that older adults who accumulate MVPA in bouts of  ≥10 min have better parameters for body composition and physical function.

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Meredith J. Luttrell, Benjamin R. Mardis, Joshua M. Bock, Erika Iwamoto, Satoshi Hanada, Kenichi Ueda, Andrew J. Feider, Kenzie Temperly and Darren Casey

The balance of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiostatic factors, like thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and endostatin, controls striated muscle angiogenic responses to exercise training. The effect of age on circulating levels of these factors following a bout of exercise is unclear. The authors hypothesized that older adults would have lower circulating VEGF but higher TSP-1 and endostatin after exercise compared with young adults. Ten young and nine older participants cycled for 45 min at 60% estimated HRmax. Serum [VEGF], [TSP-1], and [endostatin] obtained before (PREX), immediately after (POSTX0), and 3 hr after (POSTX3) exercise were analyzed. [VEGF] increased in older adults only from PREX to POSTX0 (p < .05). [TSP-1] increased in both age groups (p < .05). There was no effect of age or exercise on [endostatin]. In conclusion, immediately after exercise, both groups had a similar increase in [TSP-1], but [VEGF] increased in older adults only.

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Beatriz Caruso Soares, Jéssica Maria Ribeiro Bacha, Daniel Donadio Mello, Emerson Galves Moretto, Tatiana Fonseca, Karina Santos Vieira, Amanda Franchi de Lima, Belinda Lange, Camila Torriani-Pasin, Roseli de Deus Lopes and José Eduardo Pompeu

Objective: To analyze the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of immersive virtual tasks. Methods: The authors recruited 11 young adults and 10 older adults. The participants performed three virtual reaching tasks while walking on a virtual path. The descriptive analysis and comparison between participants were performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and chi-square test for nonparametric and nominal variables, respectively. The authors also used analysis of variance for a between-groups comparison for normal variables. Results: Twenty percent of older adults and 81.8% of young adults completed all three tasks (chi-square test; p = .005). Both groups reported minor symptoms, with no significant differences. The older adults were more motivated to practice the tasks (Mann–Whitney U test; p = .015) and would be more likely to suggest them to others (chi-square test; p = .034). Conclusion: All three tasks were feasible for young adults. All participants, except for one, had cybersickness. The symptoms were mostly mild and subsided once the interaction was complete.