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Jessica Ferreira, André Bebiano, Daniel Raro, João Martins and Anabela G. Silva

Context: Sliding and tensioning neural mobilization are used to restore normal function of the nervous system, but they impose different stresses on it. Particularly, sliding induces greater nerve excursion than tensioning. Conceivably, they might impact nervous system function differently. Objective: To compare the effects of tensioning neural mobilization versus sliding neural mobilization of the dominant lower limb on static postural control and hop testing. Design: Randomized, parallel and double blinded trial. Setting/Participants: Thirty-seven football players. Intervention(s): Participants were randomized into 2 groups: sliding neural mobilization (n = 18) or tensioning neural mobilization (n = 19) targeting the tibial nerve. Main Outcome Measures: Static postural sway was assessed with a force plate and functional performance with hop tests. Measurements were taken at baseline, after the intervention, and at 30-minute follow-up. Results: There was a significant effect of time for the center of pressure total displacement and velocity (P < .05), for the single-leg hop test (P < .05), the 6-m timed hop test (P < .05), and the cross-over hop test (P < .05), but no significant effect of the intervention. Conclusions: Sliding and tensioning neural mobilization improved postural control and hop testing in football players, and improvements remained 30 minutes after the intervention. Additional research examining the influence of neural mobilization on sensory motor impairments, postural control, and functional performance is needed.

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Alireza Derakhshani, Amir Letafatkar and Zohre Khosrokiani

Context: Scapular downward rotation syndrome (SDRS) is an impaired alignment that causes shoulder and neck pain. Interventions may lead to the reduction of pain intensity and joint position error (JPE) and improved range of motion (ROM). Objective: To evaluate the effects of 6-week Scapular Upward Rotation and Elevation Exercises (SUREE) with and without visual feedback on pain, ROM, and JPE in people with SDRS. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Institutional practice. Participants: Forty-two young and active subjects (22.61 [1.80] y; 27 males and 15 females) with unilateral SDRS randomly assigned into 3 groups (2 intervention groups and 1 control group). Interventions: SUREE without and with visual feedback programs. Main Outcome Measures: Pain, neck-flexion and rotation ROMs, and JPE were measured using visual analog scale (score), double inclinometer method, universal goniometer method (degrees), and a dual digital inclinometer (degrees), respectively, before and after interventions. Results: The results showed statistically significant changes within the experimental groups in all variables except for the neck rotation ROM in the SUREE intervention without visual feedback (P < .05). However, there were no changes in the control group before and after the interventions in all dependent variables (P < .05). Also, there were no significant differences between both experimental groups concerning all dependent variables except for the rotation ROM (P < .05). Conclusion: The results suggest that the 6-week SUREE with and without visual feedback programs result in decreased neck pain and improved flexion ROM and JPE during active neck motions in subjects with unilateral SDRS. However, the 6-week SUREE with visual feedback may improve the neck rotation ROM in subjects with unilateral SDRS. However, further studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.

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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

Sport socialization research has revealed that a community is one of the most influential socializing agents. However, little is known about which aspects of a community promote sport socialization and how it occurs. In the current research, we identified and conceptualized two key factors characterizing sports teams’ fan communities, relative size and entitativity, and discussed how these factors influence sport socialization and its outcomes. First, we developed the model of community influence on sport socialization to depict the effects of relative size and entitativity on people’s perceptions and behaviors at the initial stage of their sport socialization. Second, we proposed the model of community influence on the outcomes of sport socialization, which explains how relative size and entitativity contribute to the outcomes of sport socialization.

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Michael Girdwood, Liam West, David Connell and Peter Brukner

Context: Muscle injuries of the hip stabilizers are considered rare in sport. Objective: This report presents a previously unreported case of a contact injury resulting in acute strain of quadratus femoris, obturator externus, and inferior gemellus in an amateur Australian rules football player. Design: Level 4—case report. Case Presentation: A player was tackled ipsilateral to the injured leg, while in hip flexion in a lunged position. The case describes the diagnostic process, initial management, and return to play for this athlete. Results: Following rehabilitation, the player was able to return to sport at 8 weeks without ongoing issues. Conclusions: A literature search for sports-related contact injuries to either muscle returned only one result. All other documented cases of injury to these muscle groups are confined to noncontact mechanisms or delayed presentations. Despite conventional teaching, the action of the deep external rotators of the hip appears to be positionally dependent. Knowledge of this type of injury and mechanism may be useful for future clinical reasoning and differential diagnosis in patients with this type of presentation.

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Gary Allen, Kristy Smith, Brady Tripp, Jason Zaremski and Seth Smith

We present a case of a 17-year-old White male high school American football player who was diagnosed with an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus after experiencing dizziness, near-syncope, and altered mental status during a football practice. The symptoms were recognized by an on-site certified athletic trainer who activated emergency medical response. After unremarkable initial emergency evaluation, referral to a sports cardiologist unveiled an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus on echocardiogram. After surgical correction and rehabilitation, the patient was able to return to exercise activity. Anomalous coronary arteries are the second most common cause of autopsy-positive episodes of sudden cardiac death among athletes and are rarely recognized with abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG) findings prior to events. This case highlights the importance of prompt recognition, evaluation, and treatment of athletes with cardiac symptoms, and contributes to an ongoing discussion on whether echocardiograms should be considered in preparticipation evaluations.

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Kelly Cornett, Katherine Bray-Simons, Heather M. Devlin, Sunil Iyengar, Patricia Moore Shaffer and Janet E. Fulton

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Simon A. Rogers, Peter Hassmén, Alexandra H. Roberts, Alison Alcock, Wendy L. Gilleard and John S. Warmenhoven

Purpose: A novel 4-task Athlete Introductory Movement Screen was developed and tested to provide an appropriate and reliable movement screening tool for youth sport practitioners. Methods: The overhead squat, lunge, push-up, and a prone brace with shoulder touches were selected based on previous assessments. A total of 28 mixed-sport junior athletes (18 boys and 10 girls; mean age = 15.7 [1.8] y) completed screening after viewing standardized demonstration videos. Athletes were filmed performing 8 repetitions of each task and assessed retrospectively by 2 independent raters using a 3-point scale. The primary rater reassessed the footage 3 weeks later. A subgroup (n = 11) repeated the screening 7 days later, and a further 8 athletes were reassessed 6 months later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV%), and weighted kappa (k) were used in reliability analysis. Results: For the Athlete Introductory Movement Screen 4-task sum score, intrarater reliability was high (ICC = .97; CV = 2.8%), whereas interrater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = .88; CV = 5.6%). There was a range of agreement from fair to almost perfect (k = .31–.89) between raters across individual movements. A 7-day and 6-month test–retest held good reliability and acceptable CVs (≤ 10%) for sum scores. Conclusion: The 4-task Athlete Introductory Movement Screen appears to be a reliable tool for profiling emerging athletes. Reliability was strongest within the same rater; it was lower, yet acceptable, between 2 raters. Scores can provide an overview of appropriate movement competencies, helping practitioners assess training interventions in the athlete development pathway.

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Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

This study aimed to develop and refine an Athlete Food Choice Questionnaire (AFCQ) to determine the key factors influencing food choice in an international cohort of athletes. A questionnaire that contained 84 items on a 5-point frequency scale was developed for this study. Athletes at the 2017 Universiade, in Taiwan, were invited to participate. Principal component analysis was utilized to identify key factors and to refine the questionnaire. Completed questionnaires were received from 156 athletes from 31 countries and 17 sports. The principal component analysis extracted 36 items organized into nine factors explaining 68.0% of variation. The nine factors were as follows: nutritional attributes of the food, emotional influences, food and health awareness, influence of others, usual eating practices, weight control, food values and beliefs, sensory appeal, and performance. The overall Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure was 0.75, the Bartlett test of sphericity was statistically significant, χ2(666) =2,536.50, p < .001, and all of the communalities remained >0.5. Intercorrelations were detected between performance and both nutritional attributes of the food and weight control. The price of food, convenience, and situational influences did not form part of the factorial structure. This research resulted in an AFCQ that includes factors specific to athletic performance and the sporting environment. The AFCQ will enable researchers and sports dietitians to better tailor nutrition education and dietary interventions to suit the individual or team. The next phase will test the accuracy and reliability of the AFCQ both during and outside of competition. The AFCQ is a useful tool to assist with management of performance nutrition for athletes.