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Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy

The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which children and adolescents with and without visual impairments (VIs) met national physical activity, screen-time, and sleep guidelines. This observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health focused on children (age 6–12 yr) and adolescents (age 13–17 yr) with and without VIs. The sample included 241 (weighted n = 472,127) and 17,610 (weighted n = 28,249,833) children, and 255 (weighted n = 505,401) and 17,417 (weighted n = 20,071,557) adolescents with and without VIs, respectively. Chi-square statistics were computed to examine the degree to which participants with and without VIs met health-behavior guidelines. Children (p = .02) with VIs were less likely to meet screen-time guidelines, but adolescents with VIs were not (p = .87). VI status was not associated with the likelihood of meeting physical activity or sleep guidelines (p < .05). Low numbers of children and adolescents with and without VIs meeting health-behavior guidelines warrant targeted interventions aimed at enhancing engagement.

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Ramesh Kaipa, Bethany Howard, Roha Kaipa, Eric Turcat and Laurielle Prema

The current study compared the role of massed versus distributed practice in learning novel foreign language utterances. Fifty healthy native English-speaking participants were randomly assigned to either massed or distributed practice groups. All participants practiced eight novel French utterances 25 times each for a total of 200 times, with the spacing of practice sessions differing between the two groups. Both the groups completed an immediate retention as well as a delayed retention test. Participants’ learning was evaluated based on phonetic accuracy and naturalness of the French utterances. The findings revealed that participants involved in distributed practice demonstrated better learning over participants involved in massed practice. Future research should aim to extrapolate these findings in treating speech disorders.

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Tomoko Aoki, Hayato Tsuda and Hiroshi Kinoshita

The purpose of this study was to examine finger motor function in terms of temporal and force characteristics during rapid single-finger tapping in older adults. Ten older and 10 young males performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger. Nontapping fingers were maintained in contact with designated keys during tasks. Key-contact force for each of the fingers was monitored using four force transducers. The older subjects had slower tapping rates of all fingers during single-finger tapping than the young subjects. The average forces exerted by the nontapping fingers were larger for the older subjects than for the young subjects during tapping with the ring and little fingers. The ranges of the nontapping finger forces were larger for the older subjects during tapping by the middle, ring, and little fingers than for the young subjects. Thus, the motor abilities of the fingers evaluated by rapid single-finger tapping decline in older adults compared with young adults in terms of both movement speed and finger independence.

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Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier

The aim of this case study was to describe the distinct approaches used by physical education (PE) teachers to accommodate students with disabilities in New York elementary school PE classes. The participants included 1 adapted PE specialist, 5 PE teachers, and 5 elementary school students with various impairments. Through thematic analysis, observations and interviews revealed 3 main approaches: (a) normalized instruction—traditional curriculum with no differentiation in the program; (b) differentiated instruction—adaptations tailored specifically to the needs of each student with disability; and (c) universally designed instruction based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and accessibility to all students. Differentiated instruction, entailing modifications in the program and pedagogical accommodations, was the most prevalent approach at the research site, but lessons based on UDL principles were also observed. In association, the 2 approaches (differentiated instruction and UDL) represented significant resources to accommodate students with disabilities in PE.

Open access

Marcos de Noronha, Eleisha K. Lay, Madelyn R. Mcphee, George Mnatzaganian and Guilherme S. Nunes

Context: Ankle sprains are common injuries in sports, but it is unclear whether they are more likely to occur in a specific period of a sporting game. Objective: To systematically review the literature investigating when in a match ankle sprains most likely occurred. Evidence Acquisition: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched up to August 2016, with no restriction of date or language. The search targeted studies that presented data on the time of occurrence of ankle sprains during sports matches. Data from included studies were analyzed as a percentage of ankle sprain occurrence by halftime and by quarters. Meta-analyses were run using a random effects model. The quality assessment tool for quantitative studies was used to assess the article’s quality. Evidence Synthesis: The searches identified 1142 studies, and 8 were included in this review. A total of 500 ankle sprains were reported during follow-up time, which ranged from 1 to 15 years, in 5 different sports (soccer, rugby, futsal, American football, and Gaelic football). The meta-analyses, including all 8 studies, showed that the proportion of ankle sprains during the first half (0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.50) was smaller than the second half (0.56; 95% CI, 0.50–0.62). For the analyses by quarters, the proportion of ankle sprains in the first quarter (0.14; 95% CI, 0.09–0.19) was considerably smaller than the second (0.28; 95% CI, 0.24–0.32), third (0.25; 95% CI, 0.17–0.34), and fourth (0.29; 95% CI, 0.22–0.36) quarters. Conclusion: The results of this review indicate that ankle sprains are more likely to occur later in the game during the second half or during the latter minutes of the first half.

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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

Context: Intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises are utilized clinically in the treatment of foot and ankle conditions. However, the effectiveness of training on IFM motor function is unknown. Objective: To study the effects of a 4-week IFM exercise program on motor function, perceived difficulty, and IFM motor activation measured using ultrasound imaging (USI) during 3 IFM exercises. Design: Single-blinded randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 24 healthy, recreationally active young adults without history of ankle–foot injury who have never performed IFM exercises participated (12 males and 12 females; mean age = 21.5 [4.8] y; body mass index = 23.5 [2.9] kg/m2) Intervention: Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group received a 4-week progressive home IFM exercise program performed daily. Participants in the control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Clinician-assessed motor performance (4-point scale: 0 = does not initiate movement and 3 = performs exercise in standard pattern), participant-perceived difficulty (5-point Likert scale: 1 = very easy and 5 = very difficult), and USI motor activation measures (contracted measurementresting measurement) of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, and flexor hallucis brevis were assessed during toe-spread-out, hallux-extension, and lesser-toe-extension exercises. Results: The intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in motor performance in the toe-spread-out exercise (pre = 1.9 [0.5], post = 2.6 [0.5], P = .008) and less perceived difficulty in the toe-spread-out (pre = 3.1 [1.3], post = 2.3 [1.2], P = .01), hallux-extension (pre = 3.2 [1.5], post = 2.0 [1.2], P = .005), and lesser-toe-extension (pre = 1.9 [0.7], post = 1.2 [0.4], P = .03) exercises. Both groups demonstrated increased USI motor activation in the abductor hallucis during the toe-spread-out exercise (intervention: pre = 1.07 [0.06], post = 1.11 [0.08] and control: pre = 1.08 [0.06], post = 1.11 [0.06]; P = .05). No other significant main effects or group by time interactions were observed. Conclusion: A 4-week IFM exercise intervention resulted in improved motor performance and decreased perceived difficulty when performing the exercises, but not changes in USI measures of IFM activation compared with a control group.

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Hannah I. Gard, Jeana M. Gregory, Amy Gibson and Jennifer Austin

Context: College soccer players suffer from hamstring injuries due to inflexibility and repetitive motions involving intense hamstring lengthening and contraction during sport. Although it is a popular intervention for muscular injury, there exists limited evidence of the effects of therapeutic cupping on hamstring flexibility. Objective: To determine the effect of cupping therapy on hamstring flexibility in college soccer players. Design: Cohort design. Setting: Athletic training clinic. Patients: A total of 25, asymptomatic, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III soccer players (10 males and 15 females; age = 19.4 [1.30] y, height = 175.1 [8.2] cm, and mass = 69.5 [6.6] kg). Intervention(s): A 7-minute therapeutic cupping treatment was delivered to the treatment group. Four 2-in cups were fixed atop trigger point locations within the hamstring muscle bellies of participants’ dominant legs. Control group participants received no intervention between pretest and posttest measurements. Main Outcome Measures: Pretest and posttest measurements of hamstring flexibility, using a passive straight leg raise, were performed on both groups. Passive straight leg raise measurements were conducted by blinded examiners using a digital inclinometer. An independent samples t test was used to analyze changes in hamstring flexibility from pretreatment to posttreatment with P values set a priori at .05. Results: An independent samples t test demonstrated no significant difference in change in hamstring flexibility between participants in the treatment group and those in the control group (t 23 = −.961, P = .35). Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated no statistically significant changes in hamstring flexibility following a cupping treatment.

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Gretchen D. Oliver, Jessica K. Washington, Sarah S. Gascon, Hillary A. Plummer, Rafael F. Escamilla and James R. Andrews

Context: Hip abductor musculature contributes to the stability of the pelvis, which is needed for efficient energy transfer from the lower-extremity to the upper-extremity during overhead throwing. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a bilateral hip abduction fatigue protocol on overhead-throwing kinematics and passive hip range of motion. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Participants: A convenience sample of 19 collegiate female softball players (20.6 [1.9] y; 169.3 [9.7] cm; 73.2 [11.2] kg). Main Outcome Measures: Repeated hip abduction to fatigue was performed on an isokinetic dynamometer for 3 consecutive days. Trunk and shoulder kinematics during throwing and hip internal and external rotation range of motion were analyzed prior to fatigue on day 1 (prefatigue) and following fatigue on day 3 (postfatigue). Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no statistically significant differences in trunk and shoulder kinematics prefatigue and postfatigue. A statistically significant time × side × direction interaction (F 2,36 = 5.462, P = .02, ηp2=.233) was observed in hip passive range of motion. A decrease in throwing-side hip internal rotation prefatigue to postfatigue (mean difference = −2.284; 95% confidence interval, −4.302 to −0.266; P = .03) was observed. Conclusions: The hip abductor fatigue protocol used in this study did not significantly alter trunk and upper-extremity throwing kinematics. The lack of changes may indicate that fatigue of the hip abductors does not contribute to trunk and shoulder kinematics during throwing or the protocol may not have been sport-specific enough to alter kinematics.

Open access

Erica S. Albertin, Emilie N. Miley, James May, Russell T. Baker and Don Reordan

Clinical Scenario: Hip osteoarthritis currently affects up to 28% of the population, and the number of affected Americans is expected to rise as the American population increases and ages. Limited hip range of motion (ROM) has been identified as a predisposing factor to hip osteoarthritis and limited patient function. Clinicians often apply therapy techniques, such as stretching and strengthening exercises, to improve hip ROM. Although traditional therapy has been recommended to improve hip ROM, the efficiency of the treatments within the literature is questionable due to lack of high-quality studies. More recently, clinicians have begun to utilize joint mobilization and the Mulligan Concept mobilization with movement techniques to increase ROM at the hip; however, there is a paucity of research on the lasting effects of mobilizations. Given the difficulties in improving ROM immediately (within a single treatment) and with long-lasting results (over the course of months), it is imperative to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of traditional therapy techniques and more novel manual therapy techniques. Focused Clinical Question: Is there evidence to suggest manual mobilizations techniques at the hip are effective at treating hip ROM limitations? Summary of Clinical Findings: 5 Randomized Controlled Studies, improved patient function and ROM with the Mulligan concept, high velocity low amplitude improved. Clinical Bottom Line: We found moderate evidence to suggest favorable outcomes following the use of hip mobilizations aimed at improving hip ROM and patient function. Strength of Recommendation: Strength of the studies identified are 1B.