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Shuge Zhang, Ross Roberts, Tim Woodman and Andrew Cooke

Narcissism–performance research has focused on grandiose narcissism but has not examined the interaction between its so-called adaptive (reflecting overconfidence) and maladaptive (reflecting a domineering orientation) components. In this research, the authors tested interactions between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism using two motor tasks (basketball and golf in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) and a cognitive task (letter transformation in Experiment 3). Across all experiments, adaptive narcissism predicted performance under pressure only when maladaptive narcissism was high. In the presence of maladaptive narcissism, adaptive narcissism also predicted decreased pre-putt time in Experiment 2 and an adaptive psychophysiological response in Experiment 3, reflecting better processing efficiency. Findings suggest that individuals high in both aspects of narcissism perform better under pressure thanks to superior task processing. In performance contexts, the terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive”—adopted from social psychology—are oversimplistic and inaccurate. The authors believe that “self-inflated narcissism” and “dominant narcissism” are better monikers for these constructs.

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Hayley M. Ericksen and Rachele E. Vogelpohl

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes is common. Team sport athletes experience more ACL injuries than ballet and modern dancers. Examining biomechanical differences between these two groups may help to explain the discrepancy in ACL injury rates. The purpose of this study was to examine lower extremity kinematic differences between collegiate dancers and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer athletes during a rebound jump-landing task. Peak hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during a jump-landing task. Results showed more knee flexion and less ankle eversion in the dancers compared to the soccer athletes. Differences in training and strategies used during landing may explain the kinematic differences between groups.

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David Eitle, Steven Swinford and Abagail Klonsinski

Using data from the Add Health, the authors consider whether male high school sport participation had an association with intimate partner violence perpetration into adulthood, controlling for other known predictors. Results show that sport participation is associated with a reduced risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence in adulthood, which the authors interpret as generally supportive of the deterrence hypothesis, the notion that playing sport promotes prosocial values, increases supervision, and increases bonding to conventional institutions that lower the risk of engaging in violent behavior against women. However, the inclusion of measures representing this hypothesis failed to attenuate the sport participation–intimate partner violence association, raising questions about whether the deterrence hypothesis is the appropriate explanation.

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Madison Ardizzi, Brian Wilson, Lyndsay Hayhurst and Janet Otte

Bicycles have been hailed by the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations for use in social and economic development. However, there is a lacuna of research exploring the value of bicycles for development (BFD) outside of Europe and America. Specifically, there is a lack of research on the structure and perspectives of BFD organizations. This study draws on 19 semistructured interviews with BFD organizations in various regions of Uganda. We found that (a) BFD organizations exist along a spectrum from community-based to international, (b) the meanings ascribed to the bicycle are unstable and context dependent, and (c) that there were a range of ways that bicycles were seen to lead to positive outcomes—although barriers to attaining these outcomes were identified too. The authors conclude by suggesting that while bicycles are considered useful for a range of development purposes, perspectives on their usefulness vary—as inequalities commonly associated with sport for development are evident in the BFD movement too.

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Timóteo Daca, António Prista, Francisco Tchonga, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, Felipe F. Reichert, Paulo Farinatti and Go Tani

Time spent in different Physical Activity (PA) Intensities of 72 Mozambican older adult women (67 ± 7 years old) was assessed by means of triaxial accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and participants were stratified based on their body mass index, as being normal weight (NW, n = 23); overweight (n = 16); or obese (OB, n = 33). Overall, most daily time was spent in sedentary activities (614 ± 111 min or 69.1%) and light PA (181 ± 56 min or 20.2%). On average, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was performed during 10.6% of the day (93 ± 44 min). Time spent in MVPA was significantly higher in the NW compared to OB category (112.8 ± 51.5 vs. 81.0 ± 36.3; p = .021). The overweight group did not differ in time spent in MVPA when compared to NW and OB group. Overall, 75% of the participants spent more than 60 min a day in MVPA (NW: 83%; overweight: 81%; OB: 67%). Pearson’s correlation between body mass index and total MVPA controlling for age was −.39 (p < .001). It was concluded that Mozambican older adult women living in urban and rural areas of Maputo province engaged in relatively high Physical Activity Intensities compared with individuals of similar ages in high-income countries, regardless of their nutritional status.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Nicole T. Gabana, Brandon T. Cooper and Martin A. Swanbrow Becker

Student-athletes are susceptible to mental health problems that disrupt optimal functioning and well-being. Despite having many protective factors, student-athletes represent an at-risk subgroup of college students who experience mental health concerns due to the distress of balancing multiple obligations. However, many student-athletes underutilize psychological services. Stigma is the main barrier preventing student-athletes from seeking help, and mental health literacy (MHL) interventions addressing knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders have traditionally been used to destigmatize mental illness. This study investigated the impact of a 4-week program on stigma, MHL, and attitudes and intentions toward seeking help with 33 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes. The program was composed of four science-based interventions—MHL, empathy, counter stereotyping, and contact—delivered face-to-face within a group setting. MHL, attitudes toward seeking help, and intentions to seek counseling improved from preintervention to postintervention and to 1-month follow-up. Self-stigma was reduced from preintervention to postintervention.

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Yijian Yang, Kimberley S. van Schooten, Heather A. McKay, Joanie Sims-Gould, Raymond A. Hoang and Stephen N. Robinovitch

The objective of this study was to explore and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness and implementation of recreational therapy programs to enhance mobility outcomes (e.g., balance, functional performance, fall incidence) for older adults in long-term care. The authors conducted a scoping review of 66 studies following the PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers evaluated each article, and a third reviewer resolved discrepancies. Randomized controlled studies provided strong to moderate evidence that tai chi programs, walking, dancing, and ball games improve flexibility, functional mobility, and balance. Studies assessing program implementation highlighted that program delivery was facilitated by clear instruction, encouragement, attendance documentation, and minimal equipment. This review elucidated the benefit of recreational therapy programs on mobility. It also identified the need for customized programs based on individuals’ interests and their physical and mental abilities. These findings and recommendations will assist practitioners in designing effective and feasible recreational therapy programs for long-term care.

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Sarah Deans, Alison Kirk, Anthony McGarry and David Rowe

Introduction: Accurate measurement of physical behavior in adults with lower limb absence is essential to report true patterns of physical behavior and the effectiveness of interventions. The effect of placing accelerometers on prostheses may also affect the reliability and validity. Purpose: To assess reliability and criterion-related validity of the activPAL for measuring incidental and purposeful stepping, and reclining and stepping time in adults with unilateral lower limb absence. Methods: 15 adults with unilateral lower limb absence completed simulated lifestyle activities in a laboratory setting that were retrospectively scored via video analysis. Objective data were obtained simultaneously from two activPAL monitors placed on the sound and prosthetic side. Data were analyzed using one-way intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-tests and Cohen’s d. Results: Reliability (prosthetic side vs. sound side) was poor for incidental steps (ICC = .05, d = 0.48) but acceptable for all other measures (ICC = .77–.88; d = .00–.18). Mean activPAL measures, although highly related to the criterion, underestimated, on average, stepping and time-related variables. Differences were large for all stepping variables (d = .38–.96). Conclusions: The activPAL is a reliable measurement tool in adults with lower limb absence when used in a laboratory setting. Placement of the monitor on the sound side limb is recommended for testing. The activPAL shows evidence of relative validity, but not absolute validity. Further evaluation is needed to assess whether similar evidence is found in free-living activity and sedentary contexts.

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Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares and Alda Marques

The aim of this study was to explore respiratory function and upper extremity functional activity in people with dementia (PWD) and the associations between these variables and cognitive function (n = 22 institutionalized PWD, 28 community-dwelling PWD, and 26 healthy older people). All measures were significantly lower in PWD who live in an institution, such as a nursing home or long-term care facility or who attend adult daycare than PWD who live in a community dwelling . The values from these two groups were significantly lower than those from healthy older people. Moderate to high negative correlations between upper extremity functional activity and respiratory function (−.73 < r s < −.49) and cognitive function (r s = −.83), and between cognitive function and respiratory function (−.74 < rs < −.58) were identified (p < .001). When adjusted for cognitive function (−.38 < rs < −.29; p < .05), the association between upper limb functional activity and respiratory function decreased. The decline demonstrates the importance of physical activity and cognitive and respiratory function in PWD.