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Gabriella Whitcomb-Khan, Nick Wadsworth, Kristin McGinty-Minister, Stewart Bicker, Laura Swettenham, and David Tod

This study explored the experiences of elite athletes during the initial stages of lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The eight recruited participants (three females, five males) were asked to tell a story of their lockdown experience. Narrative analysis was used to explore the athletes’ stories. The athletes’ narrative is best represented in four distinct sections: (a) threat to goals, (b) ongoing consequences, (c) overcoming COVID-19, and (d) adapting to COVID-19. Four narrative themes were also coconstructed from the athletes’ stories: (a) factors athletes found challenging, (b) loss, (c) strategies that benefitted athletes psychologically, and (d) silver linings. Combined, these findings suggest that the initial stages of lockdown are best described as a critical pause. The authors present applied implications for athletes and sport psychology practitioners. The authors also recommend that future research investigate the longitudinal effect of prolonged lockdown on athletes’ lives and a potential return to sport.

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Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.

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Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti

The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Shelby E. Ison, and Chad M. Killian

Purpose: To examine the workplace experience of physical education teacher educators while accounting for gender and institution type. Method: Participants included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males). Data were collected using an online survey that included measures of negative (i.e., marginalization, isolation, role stress, emotional exhaustion) and positive (i.e., perceived mattering, perceived organizational support) workplace experiences. Primary analyses began with a multivariate analysis of covariance followed up by univariate analyses of covariance to examine the differences in study variables based on gender and institution type. Results: Doctoral institution faculty members reported higher marginalization and lower perceived mattering and organizational support. Female faculty members reported higher role overload and emotional exhaustion. Discussion: Results highlight differences in the faculty experience across institution types as well as gender disparities. Recommendations are provided for improving the faculty experience as well as for future research in the area.

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Andy Vasily, Tim Fletcher, Doug Gleddie, and Déirdre Ní Chróinín

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to use an actor-oriented perspective to analyze one teacher’s implementation of the Meaningful Physical Education approach in one Grade 5 classroom in Saudi Arabia. Method: A single case study design was used, with the case being defined as Andy and his teaching of a cycling unit to one Grade 5 class. Data consisted of blog posts, tweets, and semistructured interviews. Results: Andy identified several spheres of influence on implementation, including his personal philosophy, students, co-teachers, and several organizational/environmental characteristics of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) School, as well as important attributes of the innovation that supported implementation. Discussion/Conclusion: An actor-oriented perspective offered insight into a teacher’s insider perspective of a pedagogical innovation, which enabled understanding of how he made sense of Meaningful Physical Education and used those ideas to guide planning, instructional, and assessment decisions in the cycling unit.

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Yuri de Almeida Costa Campos, Jeferson M. Vianna, Miller P. Guimarães, Hiago L.R. Souza, Raúl Domínguez, Jefferson S. Novaes, Luis F.M. Leitão, Sandro F. Silva, and Victor M. Reis

Purpose: To identify the anaerobic threshold through the lactate threshold determined by Dmax and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) threshold by Dmax and to evaluate the agreement and correlation between lactate threshold determined by Dmax and RPE threshold by Dmax during an incremental test performed on the treadmill in long-distance runners. Methods: A total of 16 long-distance runners volunteered to participate in the study. Participants performed 2 treadmill incremental tests for the collection of blood lactate concentrations and RPE separated by a 48-hour interval. The incremental test started at 8 km·h−1, increasing by 1.2 km·h−1 every third minute until exhaustion. During each stage of the incremental test, there were pauses of 30 seconds for the collection of blood lactate concentration and RPE. Results: No significant difference was found between methods lactate threshold determined by Dmax and RPE threshold by Dmax methods (P = .664). In addition, a strong correlation (r = .91) and agreement through Bland–Altman plot analysis were found. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that it is possible to predict anaerobic threshold from the OMNI-walk/run scale curve through a single incremental test on the treadmill. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility and objectivity of the OMNI-walk/run scale for anaerobic threshold determination.

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Lore Metz, Laurie Isacco, Kristine Beaulieu, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

Background: While the popularity of aquatic physical activities continues to grow among women, the effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite control remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of water temperature during aqua-cycling session on EE, rate of perceived exertion, energy intake, appetite sensations, and food reward in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Participants completed three experimental sessions, in the postprandial condition, in a randomized order: a land control session (CON), an aqua-cycling session in 18 °C (EXO18), and an aqua-cycling session in 27 °C (EXO27). The EE, food intake, appetite sensations, and food reward were investigated for each condition. Results: EXO18 induced a significant increase in EE (p < .001) and oxygen consumption (p < .01) compared with EXO27. The carbohydrate oxidation was higher in EXO18 session compared with EXO27 and CON (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). While fat oxidation was higher in exercise sessions compared with CONT (p < .01), no difference was observed between EXO18 and EXO27. Exercise sessions did not alter absolute energy intake session but induced a decrease in relative energy intake (p < .001) and in hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption compared with CON (p < .001). The authors also show here that cold-water exposure can increase EE while rate of perceived exertion is lower at the end of exercise session compared with same exercise at 27 °C (p < .05).Conclusion: An exposure to a moderately cold-water during aqua-cycling is an efficient strategy to promote increased EE and decreased hunger, which may be effective for energy balance management in healthy premenopausal women.

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Kerry McGawley, Matt Spencer, Anna Olofsson, and Erik P. Andersson

Context: Warming up in very cold climates and maintaining an elevated body temperature prior to a race is challenging for snow-sport athletes. Purpose: To investigate the effects of active (ACT), passive (PAS), and a combination of ACT and PAS (COM) warm-ups on maximal physical performance in a subzero environment among snow-sport athletes. Methods: Ten junior alpine skiers completed 3 experimental trials in −7.2 (0.2)°C. The ACT involved 5 minutes of moderate cycling, 3 × 15-second accelerations, a 6-second sprint, 5 countermovement jumps (CMJs), and a 10-minute passive transition phase, while in PAS, participants wore a lower-body heated garment for 24 minutes. In COM, participants completed the active warm-up, then wore the heated garment during the transition phase. Two maximal CMJs and a 90-second maximal isokinetic cycling test followed the warm-up. Results: CMJ performance was likely (P = .150) and very likely (P = .013) greater in ACT and COM, respectively, versus PAS. Average power output during the cycling test was likely (P = .074) greater in ACT and COM versus PAS. Participants felt likely to almost certainly warmer (P < .01) and more comfortable (P = .161) during ACT and COM versus PAS. In addition, participants felt likely warmer (P = .136) and very likely more comfortable (P = .161) in COM versus ACT. Conclusions: COM resulted in significantly improved CMJ performance versus PAS while both ACT and COM led to likely improved 90-second cycling performance. Participants felt significantly warmer during ACT and COM versus PAS and likely warmer in COM versus ACT. Therefore, a combined warm-up is recommended for alpine skiers performing in subzero temperatures.

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Oliver J. Chrzanowski-Smith, Robert M. Edinburgh, Mark P. Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Sean Williams, James A. Betts, and Javier T. Gonzalez

This study explored lifestyle and biological determinants of peak fat oxidation (PFO) during cycle ergometry, using duplicate measures to account for day-to-day variation. Seventy-three healthy adults (age range: 19–63 years; peak oxygen consumption [V˙O2peak]:42.4[10.1]ml·kgBM1·min1; n = 32 women]) completed trials 7–28 days apart that assessed resting metabolic rate, a resting venous blood sample, and PFO by indirect calorimetry during an incremental cycling test. Habitual physical activity (combined heart rate accelerometer) and dietary intake (weighed record) were assessed before the first trial. Body composition was assessed 2–7 days after the second identical trial by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify determinants of PFO (mean of two cycle tests). A total variance of 79% in absolute PFO (g·min−1) was explained with positive coefficients for V˙O2peak (strongest predictor), FATmax (i.e the % of V˙O2peak that PFO occurred at), and resting fat oxidation rate (g·min−1), and negative coefficients for body fat mass (kg) and habitual physical activity level. When expressed relative to fat-free mass, 64% of variance in PFO was explained: positive coefficients for FATmax (strongest predictor), V˙O2peak, and resting fat oxidation rate, and negative coefficients for male sex and fat mass. This duplicate design revealed that biological and lifestyle factors explain a large proportion of variance in PFO during incremental cycling. After accounting for day-to-day variation in PFO, V˙O2peak and FATmax were strong and consistent predictors of PFO.

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Thomas I. Gee, Paul Harsley, and Daniel C. Bishop

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of complex-paired and reverse-contrast 10-week training programs on sprint, power, and change-of-direction speed performance of elite academy soccer players. Methods: Seventeen elite academy soccer players each performed assessments of the 10- and 40-m sprint, Abalakov vertical jump, seated medicine-ball throw, and Arrowhead change-of-direction speed test, both prior to and after a twice-weekly 10-week resistance-training program. The participants were randomly split into 2 groups; the complex-paired training group (CPT, n = 9) performed 4 different complex pairs (heavy-resistance exercises paired with plyometric and Olympic lifting–style exercises), with each pair being interspersed with an 8-minute recovery period in line with recommended guidelines. The comparative group—the reverse-contrast training group (RCT, n = 8)—performed the same exercises; however, all of the plyometric and Olympic lifting exercises preceded the heavy-resistance exercises. Results: Both groups achieved postintervention increases in the seated medicine-ball throw test (CPT +1.8% and RCT +1.6%, P < .05), whereas VJ performance improved only in the CPT group (+3.4%, P = .003). No significant improvements were observed in either the 10- and the 40-m sprint or Arrowhead change-of-direction speed test for either group. Conclusions: The CPT experienced a small but significant within-group improvement in jump performance. However, no significant between-groups differences were observed in any of the testing variables postintervention. Subsequently, for academy soccer athletes, the CPT approach did not produce meaningful benefits to performance compared with a more time-efficient reverse-contrast approach.