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Pauline M. Genin, Frédéric Dutheil, Benjamin Larras, Yoland Esquirol, Yves Boirie, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, Corinne Praznoczy, David Thivel and Martine Duclos

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

Background: Although there is increasing evidence regarding children’s screen time, little is known about children’s sitting. This study aimed to determine the correlates of screen time and sitting in 6- to 8-year-old children. Methods: In 2011–2012, parents in the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) study (n = 498) reported their child’s week/weekend day recreational screen time and potential correlates. ActivPALs measured children’s nonschool sitting. In model 1, linear regression analyses were performed, stratified by sex and week/weekend day and controlling for age, clustered recruitment, and activPAL wear time (for sitting analyses). Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sitting (P < .05) were included in model 2. Results: Children (age 7.6 y) spent 99.6 and 119.3 minutes per day on week and weekend days engaging in screen time and sat for 119.3 and 374.6 minutes per day on week and weekend days, respectively. There were no common correlates for the 2 behaviors. Correlates largely differed by sex and week/weekend day. Modifiable correlates of screen time included television in the child’s bedroom and parental logistic support for, encouragement of, and coparticipation in screen time. Modifiable correlates of sitting included encouragement of and coparticipation in physical activity and provision of toys/equipment for physical activity. Conclusions: Interventions may benefit from including a range of strategies to ensure that all identified correlates are targeted.

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Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Christine Frisard, Milagros C. Rosal and Stephenie C. Lemon

Background: Local health departments (LHDs) are increasingly involved in Community Health Improvement Plans (CHIPs), a collaborative planning process that represents an opportunity for prioritizing physical activity. We determined the proportion of LHDs reporting active transportation strategies in CHIPs and associations between LHD characteristics and such strategies. Methods: A national probability survey of US LHDs (<500,000 residents; 30.2% response rate) was conducted in 2017 (n = 162). LHDs reported the inclusion of 8 active transportation strategies in a CHIP. We calculated the proportion of LHDs reporting each strategy. Multivariate logistic regression models determined the associations between LHD characteristics and inclusion of strategies in a CHIP. Inverse probability weights were applied for each stratum. Results: 45.6% of US LHDs reported participating in a CHIP with ≥1 active transportation strategy. Proportions for specific strategies ranged from 22.3% (Safe Routes to School) to 4.1% (Transit-Oriented Development). Achieving national accreditation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–12.05), pursuing accreditation (OR = 3.40; 95% CI, 1.25–9.22), using credible resources (OR = 5.25; 95% CI, 1.77–15.56), and collaborating on a Community Health Assessment (OR = 4.48; 95% CI, 1.23–16.29) were associated with including a strategy in a CHIP after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: CHIPs are untapped tools, but national accreditation, using credible resources, and Community Health Assessment collaboration may support strategic planning efforts to improve physical activity.

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Per G. Svensson and Richard Loat

The need for new and evidence-based solutions for mobilizing stakeholders and resources in sport for development and peace (SDP) is increasingly emphasized in a number of recent policy documents including the Kazan Action Plan and a set of publications by the Commonwealth Secretariat. This paper provides a response to these calls for the development of mechanisms and toolkits to support multistakeholder collaboration. We draw on our combined experiences in SDP research, practice, and funding to identify how multistakeholder initiatives in SDP can be better leveraged. Specifically, we discuss how Brown’s (2015) five elements of bridge-building for social transformation, namely, compelling and locally relevant goals; cross-boundary leadership systems; generative theories of change; systems enabling and protecting innovation; and investment in institutionalizing change, apply in the SDP domain. The practical framework we have outlined provides a common ground and starting point to build upon for generating improved synergies among a multitude of stakeholders.

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Julie D. Guldager, Anja Leppin, Jesper von Seelen and Pernille T. Andersen

Background: The reasons for the mixed evidence of the effectiveness of school-based physical activity programs can be many, including implementation challenges. Studying program implementation can potentially contribute to enhancing effectiveness, the design of future interventions, improved implementation, and the interpretation of outcomes. Methods: For this process evaluation, individual interviews were conducted with 16 teachers who had implemented the program “Active All Year Round” in a fifth-grade school class (students aged 9–11 y) in 2017. Through systematic text condensation feasibility and barriers of program implementation, perceived program reach and the programs’ influence on social cohesion were identified and discussed. Results: Teachers described the program as very feasible to implement and identified very few implementation barriers, the most prominent being time constrains. Perceived program reach was very high, and teachers reported that those students who are less confident when it comes to physical activity did not have differential participation than those feeling more confident about physical activity. Finally, the program was perceived to positively affect social cohesion in class. Conclusions: Active All Year Round is a standardized, flexible, and easily implemented program in Danish schools. Future studies are needed to study implementation from a student’s perspective and/or students’ role in and experiences with competition-based health programs.

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

Background: Physical activity may be as effective as some drugs for improving psychological outcomes; however, vigorous exercise may be needed for improving these outcomes in adolescents with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of low- and high-intensity training on self-esteem and symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescents with obesity. Methods: A total of 62 pubertal adolescents with obesity (age 15 [1.5] y, body mass index 34.87 [4.22] kg/m2) were randomized into high-intensity group (HIG, n = 31) or low-intensity group (LIG, n = 31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Body composition and measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem were assessed at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results: Depressive symptoms decreased significantly in both HIG (d = 1.16) and LIG (d = 0.45) (P ≤ .01). Trait anxiety decreased after 24 weeks for HIG (d = 0.81, P = .002) and LIG (d = 0.31, P = .002). No changes were observed in state anxiety or self-esteem. Conclusions: Results from the present study demonstrate that 24 weeks of multidisciplinary intervention improves depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents with obesity; however, the magnitude of changes is higher in HIG compared with LIG.

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

Background: To examine the relationships among school day sedentary times (SED), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with gross motor skills in children using Compositional Data Analysis. Methods: Participants were 409 children (mean age = 8.4 [1.8] y) recruited across 5 low-income schools. Gross motor skills were assessed using the test for gross motor development—third edition (TGMD-3), and physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Isometric log-ratio coordinates were calculated by quantifying the relative proportion of percentage of the school day spent in SED, LPA, and MVPA. The associations of the isometric log-ratio coordinates with the TGMD-3 scores were estimated using general linear mixed-effects models adjusted for age, body mass index, estimated aerobic capacity, and school affiliation. Results: A higher proportion of the school day spent in %MVPA relative to %SED and %LPA was significantly associated with higher TGMD-3 total scores (γ MVPA = 14.44, P = .01). This relationship was also observed for the ball skills subtest scores (γ MVPA = 16.12, P = .003). Conclusions: Replacing %SED and %LPA with %MVPA during school hours may be an effective strategy for improving gross motor skills, specifically ball skills, in low-income elementary school-aged children.

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John Charles Bradbury

This study examines the determinants of Major League Soccer team attendance during the league’s recent era of growth. The estimates indicated that regular-season on-field performance is positively associated with attendance, but the returns to success are diminishing. The estimates identified positive novelty effects for newer teams and soccer-specific stadiums, but not for stadium age. Income and attendance were positively correlated, which indicates that Major League Soccer matches are a normal good. The population size, Hispanic share of the population, presence of other major-league franchises, and number of designated players on a team did not appear to be strong determinants of seasonal attendance.

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Per G. Svensson, Seungmin Kang and Jae-Pil Ha

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of shared leadership and organizational capacity on organizational performance and innovative work behavior (IWB) in sport for development and peace. An electronic survey was distributed to 1,120 sport for development and peace practitioners. A total of 215 completed surveys were recorded for a response rate of 19.2%. Structural equation modeling revealed significant relationships between shared leadership and both organizational performance and IWB. In addition, shared leadership fully mediated the relationship between capacity and IWB, and partially mediated the relationship between capacity and organizational performance. Altogether, the results indicate that shared leadership and capacity combined to explain a significant proportion of variance in performance and IWB. The results provide empirical support for the significant role of shared leadership in sport for development and peace. In addition, the significant direct and indirect effects in the tested model highlight the value of examining both capacity and shared leadership.

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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between sedentary behavior patterns and cardiometabolic risk in children using a monitor that accurately distinguishes between different postures. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 118 children (67 girls) aged 11–12 years had adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose measured, and then they wore an activPAL device to record sitting, standing, and stepping for 7 consecutive days. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders and moderate to vigorous physical activity, the number of breaks in sitting was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (standardized β ≥ −0.546; P ≤ .001) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.415; P ≤ .01). Time in prolonged sitting bouts was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (β ≥ −0.577; P ≤ .001) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.432; P ≤ .05). Standing time was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (β ≥ −0.270; P ≤ .05) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.312; P ≤ .05). Conclusions: This study suggests that increasing the number of breaks in sitting and increasing standing time are beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk and should be considered in health promotion interventions in children.