Background: Actively commuting to and from work can increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and increase adherence to physical activity (PA) guidelines; however, there is a lack of evidence on the contribution of mixed-mode commutes and continuous stepping bouts to PA. Many commuting studies employ the use of self-reported PA measures. This study objectively determined the contribution of MVPA during commuting to total MVPA, using cadence to define MVPA, and explored how the length of stepping bouts affects adherence to PA guidelines. Methods: Twenty-seven university staff wore an activPAL™ activity monitor for seven days and kept an activity diary. The activPAL™quantified MVPA and bouts duration and the activity diary collected information about commute times and the modes of commute. Twenty-three participants with at least four days of data were included in the final analysis. Results: The median total time per day spent in MVPA was 49.6 (IQR: 27.4–75.8) minutes and 31% of the total time was accumulated during commuting (median = 15.2 minutes; IQR: 4.11–26.9). Walking and mixed-mode commuters spent more time in MVPA (37.6 and 26.9 minutes, respectively), compared to car commuters (5.8 minutes). Seventeen out of the 23 participants achieved more than 30 minutes of MVPA per day, with five achieving this in their commute alone. A significant positive association was found between commute time spent in MVPA and total MVPA (p < .001). Conclusion: Commuting can be a major contributor to total MVPA, with the mode of commute having a significant role in the level of this contribution to total MVPA.
Abolanle R. Gbadamosi, Alexandra M. Clarke-Cornwell, Paul A. Sindall and Malcolm H. Granat
Alison Griffin, Tim Roselli and Susan L. Clemens
Background: Health benefits of physical activity (PA) accrue with small increases in PA, with the greatest benefits for those transitioning from inactivity to any level of PA. This study examined whether self-reported PA time in Queensland adults changed between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The Queensland government conducts regular cross-sectional telephone surveys. Between 2004 and 2018, adults aged 18–75 years answered identical questions about their weekly minutes of walking, moderate PA, and vigorous PA. Hurdle regression estimated the average annual change in weekly minutes of PA overall and by activity type, focusing on sociodemographic differences in trends. Results: The sample size averaged 1764 (2004–2008) and 10,188 (2009–2018), totaling 107,171 participants aged 18–75 years. Unadjusted PA increased by 10 minutes per week per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–11.1) overall, with increases for most subgroups. Adjusted PA increased by 10.5 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 9.4–11.7). Trends differed by employment—employed adults and those not in the labor force increased by 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8–15.8) and 2.2 minutes per week per year (95% CI, 0.4–4.0), respectively, with no increase for unemployed adults. The increases were due to both an increased prevalence of doing any activity and an increased average duration among active adults. Conclusions: Since 2004, PA time has increased for Queensland adults, with substantial variability by employment status.
Collin A. Webster, Judith E. Rink, Russell L. Carson, Jongho Moon and Karen Lux Gaudreault
Birthed over a decade ago and built on a solid foundation of conceptual and empirical work in public health, the comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) model set the stage for a new and exciting chapter of physical activity promotion through schools. On the academic front, there has been much enthusiasm around the potential of CSPAPs to positively affect youth physical activity behaviors and trajectories. However, program uptake in schools has yet to take hold. This article examines the CSPAP model and proposes an illustrative supplement to enhance communication about its application. The authors begin by charting the model’s challenging contextual landscape and then highlight the model’s early successes in spite of such challenges. Subsequently, they turn their attention to limitations in the way the model is presented, which appear to undermine CSPAP advocacy, and focus on improving the messaging about CSPAPs as an immediate step toward increased implementation.
Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Gilles Loggia, Nathalie Chastan, Gaëlle Quarck and Antoine Gauthier
Background: The study aimed to determine whether improved muscle strength after 12 weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of plantar and dorsiflexors could result in better limits of stability in older adults. Methods: Twenty-seven participants were divided into a control group and a neuromuscular home-based training group. The training group performed a 3-month long NMES training of both plantar and dorsiflexors. Ankle flexor strength and limits of stability were measured. A mediation analysis was conducted to determine whether the NMES effect on the limits of stability was mediated by increased strength. Results: The NMES training increased plantar flexor strength (+47%; β = 0.217, P = .02), and this increase predicted the anterior limits of stability improvement (+27%; β = 0.527, P = .02). The effect of the NMES on the limits of stability was fully mediated by the plantar flexor strength increase (indirect effect: β = 0.1146; 95% confidence interval, 0.020–0.240). Conclusion: It seems that NMES improves the limits of stability through its positive effect on muscle strength. NMES may be utilized in fall-prevention programs.
Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont
Engaging in regular exercise is a common strategy to meet physical activity guidelines. It is generally accepted that exercise programs and interventions that are theory driven and provide clear exercise prescriptions elicit greater improvements than ones that are and do not. Several researchers have further surmised that the application of periodization may be useful for insufficiently active and at-risk populations. Although periodization is most commonly used to elicit peak performance in athletes, the goal of manipulating human movement to elicit favorable health and fitness adaptations is shared by interventionists applying behavior-change theories. However, the commonly applied theories and concept of periodization have received criticisms alluding to their potential obsolescence. The purpose of this review was to synthesize these criticisms and present current opinions in intervention development, with the goal of promoting cross talk and collaboration between experts in both disciplines to address potential shortcomings and stimulate innovation in exercise-program design.
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Collin Webster
The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) is a whole-school model for increasing opportunities throughout the school day for access to physical activity (PA). Opportunities for PA during the school day are an important part of the field of kinesiology and critical to individuals’ developing patterns of lifetime PA. Guided by Guskey’s theory of teacher change, this scoping literature review summarizes findings from 29 studies that collected data concerning the perceptions of stakeholders in a CSPAP. Teachers’ lifelong learning process is the focus, including K-12 classroom and physical education teachers and students, as well as current preservice classroom and physical education teacher education students and education faculty at teacher-preparation institutions. Positive perceptions of CSPAP programs were reported by all stakeholder groups. Although studies often include barriers to implementation, the stakeholders generally shared strategies to overcoming these and focused on benefits to the school setting that the researchers explained in their discussions.
Jeffrey J. Martin
The purpose of this brief commentary is to correct some misinformation that appears in many sport psychology writings. As the title of this paper indicates, the author discusses two historical giants in social psychology, Norman Triplett and Kurt Lewin, who are often cited in sport psychology publications. The problem with the typical commentary on these two social scientists and the events they are linked to is that the discussions of them are typically inaccurate, as Strube, Stroebe, and Bedeian indicate and the author next elaborates on.
Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill
Fewer than 20% of older adults participate in strength training (ST). Barriers to ST participation include not knowing where to go or not having someone to go with. To address these barriers, the authors provided older adults with a peer (older person already participating in ST) to support their engagement. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine whether older adults who were provided with a peer when participating in ST were more likely to be participating in ST 4 weeks postintervention, compared with those receiving ST alone. Fifty-one ST participants were recruited; 40 completed the intervention and postintervention data collection (78.4%). Providing peer support with ST did not significantly increase ST participation (p = .775). However, both groups made significant improvements over time in lower-limb strength and mobility. Participants in either group who continued the ST program (55%) had made additional significant improvements in lower-limb strength and mobility.
Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Rebecca Conway, Matthew Wade, Alex Lucas, Michelle Jones, Steve Mann and James Steele
Background: Physical activity (PA) promotes health and well-being. For students, university represents a transitional period, including increased independence over lifestyle behaviors, in addition to new stressors and barriers to engaging in PA. It is, therefore, important to monitor PA trends in students to gain a greater understanding about the role it might play in physical and mental well-being, as well as other factors, such as attainment and employability. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2016 in Scottish universities and colleges, and in 2017 in universities and colleges across the United Kingdom, and the data were pooled for the present study (N = 11,650). Cumulative ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between PA levels and mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability. Results: Only 51% of the respondents met the recommended levels of moderate to vigorous PA per week. There was a linear relationship between PA levels and all outcomes, with better scores in more active students. Conclusions: UK university students are insufficiently active compared with the general population of 16- to 24-year olds. Yet, students with higher PA report better outcomes for mental and personal well-being, social isolation, and perceptions of academic attainment and employability.
Jennifer P. Agans, Oliver W.A. Wilson and Melissa Bopp
Objective: To assess the extent to which college student physical activity behaviors and attitudes are associated with enrollment in required, but self-selected, health and wellness courses. Participants: Data were analyzed from 1473 undergraduate students (60% women) taking health and wellness courses at a large northeastern university. Methods: Demographic characteristics and activity levels at the time of course enrollment were assessed in relation to course selection and activity levels after course completion. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the differences in the characteristics of students enrolling in different types of health and wellness courses, and paired samples t tests were used to assess the differences in physical activity and related attitudes from the time of enrollment to the end of the semester. Results: Course selection was predicted by demographic characteristics and precourse activity levels. Overall, no significant change in activity levels was observed over the course of one semester, although some effects were observed within certain types of activities. Conclusions: When given the option, college students appear to select health and wellness courses that match their current activity levels. These courses do not significantly change the average student’s behavior or attitudes about physical activity.