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Aliaa M. Elabd, Salah-Eldin B. Rasslan, Haytham M Elhafez, Omar M. Elabd, Mohamed A. Behiry and Ahmed I. Elerian

Although current lumbar stabilization exercises are beneficial for chronic mechanical low back pain, further research is recommended focusing on global spinal alignment normalization. This randomized, controlled, blinded trial was conducted to determine the effects of adding cervical posture correction to lumber stabilization on chronic mechanical low back pain. Fifty adult patients (24 males) with chronic mechanical low back pain and forward head posture received 12 weeks treatment of either both programs (group A) or lumbar stabilization (group B). The primary outcome was back pain. The secondary outcomes included the craniovertebral angle, Oswestry Disability Index, C7-S1 sagittal vertical axis, and sagittal intervertebral movements. The multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant group-by-time interaction (P = .001, partial η 2 = .609). Pain, disability, C7-S1 sagittal vertical axis, and l2-l3 intervertebral rotation were reduced in group A more than B (P = .008, .001, .025, and .001). Craniovertebral angle was increased in A when compared to B (P = .001). However, there were no significant group-by-time interactions for other intervertebral movements. Within-group comparisons were significant for all outcomes except for craniovertebral angle within patients in the control group. Adding cervical posture correction with lumber stabilization for management of chronic low back pain seemed to have better effects than the application of a stabilization program only.

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Kendra Nelson Ferguson, Craig Hall and Alison Divine

The study aimed to determine whether athletes who practice biofeedback are able to self-regulate by reaching resonance frequency and gaining physiological control quicker than if practice time integrates imagery or a rest period. Intervention effectiveness (e.g., intervention length, time spent training) was also explored. Twenty-seven university athletes were assigned to one of three groups: (a) biofeedback (i.e., continuous training), (b) biofeedback/imagery (i.e., interspersed with imagery), and (c) biofeedback/rest (i.e., interspersed with a rest period). Five biofeedback sessions training respiration rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance were conducted. A repeated-measure analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between groups over time (p ≤ .05) for respiration rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance, indicating that resonance frequency and physiological control was regained following imagery or a rest period. Postmanipulation check data found intervention length and training time to be sufficient. Combining imagery with biofeedback may optimize management of psychophysiological processes.

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Bart Reynders, Stef Van Puyenbroeck, Eva Ceulemans, Maarten Vansteenkiste and Gert Vande Broek

Building on recent self-determination theory research differentiating controlling coaching into a demanding and domineering approach, this study examined the role of both approaches in athletes’ motivational outcomes when accompanied by autonomy support or structure. Within team-sport athletes (N = 317; mean age = 17.67), four sets of k-means cluster analyses systematically pointed toward a four-cluster solution (e.g., high–high, high–low, low–high, and low–low), regardless of the pair of coaching dimensions used. One of the identified coaching profiles involved coaches who are perceived to combine need-supportive and controlling behaviors (i.e., high–high). Whereas combining need-supportive and domineering behaviors (i.e., high–high) yields lower autonomous motivation and engagement compared with a high need-support profile (i.e., high–low), this is less the case for the combination of need-supportive and demanding behaviors (i.e., high–high). This person-centered approach provides deeper insights into how coaches combine different styles and how some forms of controlling coaching yield a greater cost than others.

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Dan Cason, Minkyo Lee, Jaedeock Lee, In-Sung Yeo and Edward J. Arner

This study examined how the legalization of sports wagering, in association with several factors (i.e., gender, motivations, and fandom), has impacted gambling behavior, interests in sport, and sport-related consumption (e.g., media, ticket sales) using a sample of active gamblers above the age of 21 (N = 58). The findings showed that economic motivation significantly predicted gambling behavior, interests in sports, and sport-related consumption, while fandom did not. People who are motivated by money are more likely to wager on sport and consume sport. However, being a sport fan or not does not impact those variables. Based on the results of the current study, it could be suggested that, since sports wagering was recently legalized, sport organizations should move quickly to attract new and potential market segments (e.g., gamblers).

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Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

Attempts were made to explore the value of the multiple social identities approach in reducing the detrimental effects of stereotype threats in the context of spectator sports. A total of 150 females were recruited for a laboratory experiment. The following manipulations were implemented: (a) stereotype threat, (b) threat along with the implicit team identification activation, and (c) control. The results revealed that females in the threat condition showed a reduced level of psychological well-being; paradoxically, negative stereotypes positively influenced their self-esteem. The activation of implicit team identification alleviated the detrimental consequences of threat by inhibiting the spreading activation of harmful stereotypes regarding women in sports. The main theoretical frameworks of this study consisted of the process account of stereotype threat suggested in cognitive psychology. The authors attempted to offer a stronger understanding of the underlying mental processes of stereotype threat on women as well as an effective means to deal with its detrimental consequences.

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Alisia G.T.T. Tran

With the aim of supporting anxiety screening of student-athletes, this study examined the psychometric performance of the GAD-7 and GAD-2 for assessing anxiety and other clinical mental health concerns (depression, past-year and recent suicidality) in student-athletes. Data from intercollegiate varsity athletes (N = 7,584) were drawn from the Healthy Minds Study. Reliability estimates were good in the sample. Area under the curve values were excellent for anxiety and fair to good for depression and suicidality. Across all clinical indicators, a cutoff of 6 (GAD-7) and 2 (GAD-2), respectively, yielded the most balanced sensitivity and specificity rates. Both measures positively correlated with functional impairment, academic impact, and perceived mental health and negatively correlated with positive mental health. Overall, results supported the reliability, accuracy, and construct validity of the GAD-7 and GAD-2 in a national student-athlete sample. Discussion focuses on clinical implications and practical usage of the GAD-7 and GAD-2 with student-athletes.

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Amy K. Bermingham, Ross D. Neville and Kyriaki Makopoulou

This study investigated perceptions about the effectiveness of a student-led sports event. Participants from a student-led tag rugby league were surveyed about its perceived effectiveness. The sample consisted of 227 participants, most of whom were undergraduates (91%) across a wide variety of academic programs. The effectiveness of the league was assessed by comparing the perceptions of participants with previous tag rugby experience with participants who had no previous tag rugby experience. Participants enjoyed participating in and reported above-average levels of commitment to the league. However, there was a difference in perceptions about the effectiveness of the league between men and women. Men with previous tag rugby experience had significantly lower perceptions about the effectiveness of the league than their counterparts with no previous experience. Post hoc analysis revealed the importance of rules and officiating protocols to men. The findings not only speak to the viability of student-led sports events but also to the utility of obtaining direct feedback from event participants themselves, which is a critical aspect of rounding out the post hoc event evaluation process. Results indicate that university course instructors should pay particular attention to knowledge of rules and officiating protocols before selecting students to deliver a league.

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Paul J. Read, Theodosia Palli and Jon L. Oliver

Context: Single-leg hop tests are used to assess functional performance following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Recording 6-m timed hop scores using a stopwatch increases the potential for misclassification of patient status due to the number of error sources present. Objective: To examine the consistency of pass/fail (>90% limb symmetry index [LSI]) decisions in athletes tested at discharge following ACL reconstruction during the 6-m timed hop and the agreement between different human raters using a stopwatch and an electronic timing system. Setting: Clinic, rehabilitation. Participants: A total of 20 professional soccer players (age 24.6 [4.2] y; height 175.3 [10.2] cm; mass 73.6 [14.5] kg; 36 [10.5] wk following ACL reconstruction) volunteered to take part in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Two individual raters recorded each trial of the 6-m timed hop test on each limb with a stopwatch and an electronic timing system acted as the criterion measure. LSI scores were also computed with a pass score >90% LSI. Results: No significant differences were observed between limbs for any scoring method (P > .05). Mean differences indicated the electronic timing system was slower than both human raters (P < .05). Five participants failed the test (<90% LSI) but on each occasion this was only recorded by one method of rating. Kappa statistics showed no agreement in LSI scores across all 3 methods of scoring (κ = −.13) and no agreement when comparing the light gates to individual raters and rater 1 versus 2 (κ < 0). 95% limits of agreement in LSI scores recorded values of approximately ±20%. Conclusions: The 6-m timed hop test recorded using a stopwatch is not a valid measure to make clinical decisions following ACL reconstruction. Systematic bias between methods also suggests that a stopwatch and electronic timing system cannot be used interchangeably.