Context: Blood flow restriction research has focused on muscular strength and hypertrophy. Limited data have been reported about the blood flow restriction effect on the tendon. Objective: To analyze and compare the time course of recovery in Achilles tendon thickness after a single bout of low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) and low-intensity blood flow restriction training (LI-BFRT). Methods: A total of 56 healthy participants (24.60 [4.0] y; 23.65 [3.4] body mass index) were included. The dominant leg was assigned for LI-BFRT using low load (30% 1-repetition maximum) and 30% of the total occlusion pressure (52.21 [17.89] mm Hg) in plantar-flexion exercise (1 × 30 + 3 × 15 repetitions). The nondominant leg was assumed as a control condition. Main Outcome Measure: Sonography images were taken before the intervention, immediately posttraining, and 24 hours after exercise (post-24) for the Achilles tendon thickness. Results: Changes in Achilles tendon thickness for LI-BFRT group were significant post- (−14.5%; P < .05) and post-24 (−9.2%; P < .05). In contrast, LI-RT group showed a transient decrease after exercise (−9.67%; P < .05) followed by a recovery of thickness post-24 (−1.06%; P < .05). Thickness post-24 was different between LI-BFRT versus LI-RT (P < .01). Hedge effect size analysis showed a large effect (g = 0.90) in LI-BFRT pre–post condition and a medium effect (g = 0.57) in post- to post-24. The LI-RT obtained a medium effect (g = 0.53) in pre–post condition and a small effect (g = 0.49) in post- to post-24. Conclusions: This study showed a different time course of the acute response in Achilles tendon thickness between LI-BFRT and LI-RT. This may be associated with intratendinous fluid movement in response to LI-BFRT.
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Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Moisés Picón-Martínez, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Diego Alexandre Alonso-Aubin and Yasser Alakhdar
Jung-Hoon Choi, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Tae-Lim Yoon and Seung-Min Baik
Context: The improvement of hip joint stability can significantly impact knee and rearfoot mechanics. Individuals with pes planus have a weak abductor hallucis (AbdH), and the tibialis anterior (TA) may activate to compensate for this. As yet, no studies have applied isometric hip abduction (IHA) for hip stability during short-foot exercise (SFE). Objective: To compare the effects of IHA on the muscle activity of the AbdH, TA, peroneus longus (PL), and gluteus medius (Gmed), as well as the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) angle during sitting and standing SFE. Design: Two-way repeated analyses of variance were used to determine the statistical significance of AbdH, TA, PL, and Gmed electromyography activity, as well as the change in MLA angle. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Thirty-two participants with pes planus. Intervention(s): The participants performed SFE with and without isometric hip abduction in sitting and standing positions. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure the activity of the AbdH, TA, PL, and Gmed muscles, and Image J was used to measure the MLA angle. Results: Significant interactions between exercise type and position were observed in terms of the PL muscle activity and in the change in MLA angle only, while other muscles showed significant main effects. The IHA during SFE significantly increased the AbdH muscle activity, while the TA muscle activity was significantly lower. The muscle activity of Gmed and PL was significantly increased in the standing position compared with sitting, but there was no significant difference with or without IHA. The change in the MLA angle was significantly greater in SFE with IHA in a standing position than in the other SFE conditions. Conclusions: IHA may be an effective method for reducing compensatory TA activity and increasing AbdH muscle activity during SFE for individuals with pes planus.
Stijn Schouppe, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Jan R. Wiersema, Stefaan Van Damme, Tine Willems and Lieven Danneels
The contribution of central factors to movement preparation (e.g., the contingent negative variation [CNV]) and the influence of fatigue on such factors are still unclear, even though executive cognitive functions are regarded as key elements in motor control. Therefore, this study examined CNV amplitude with electroencephalography in 22 healthy humans during a rapid arm movement task prior to and following three experimental conditions: (a) a no exertion/control condition, (b) a physical exertion, and (c) a cognitive exertion. CNV amplitude was affected neither by a single bout of physical/cognitive exertion nor by the control condition. Furthermore, no time-on-task effects of the rapid arm movement task on the CNV were found. Exertion did not affect cortical movement preparation, which is in contrast to previous findings regarding time-on-task effects of exertion on CNV. Based on the current findings, the rapid arm movement task is deemed suitable to measure cortical movement preparation, without being affected by learning effects and physical/cognitive exertion.
Brendon P. Hyndman and Stephen Harvey
Purpose: Limited research has been conducted relating to the use of social media during health and physical education teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate preservice teachers’ perceptions of the value of using Twitter for health and physical education teacher education. Methods: Preservice teachers completed a qualitatively designed survey. Thematic analyses were conducted via Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software, aligned to self-determination theory. Results: Twitter was perceived to be valuable for the following motivational components: (a) autonomy (choice over professional development, latest ideas, and learning flexibility), (b) relatedness (enhancing communication, tailored collaborations, and receiving practical support), and (c) competence (transferring ideas to classes, increasing technological competence, and keeping ahead of other teachers). Yet there were concerns due to Twitter’s public exposure to undesired Twitter users (relatedness) and how to navigate the platform (competence). Discussion/Conclusions: The study provides guidance to health and physical education teacher education providers on how digital learning via Twitter can meet preservice teachers’ learning needs.
Kira L. Innes, Jeffrey D. Graham and Steven R. Bray
Social interactions are theorized to inform relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE), which, in turn, may influence self-efficacy and behavior. This study investigated the effects of peer encouragement on RISE, task self-efficacy, and physical performance. Children (N = 84) were assigned to dyads and randomized to provide peer encouragement to one another or not (control group). Participants completed two endurance handgrip trials, separated by a cognitively demanding task intended to induce mental fatigue and increase the salience of the peer encouragement manipulation. Participants in the experimental group exchanged words of encouragement prior to the second endurance trial, whereas those in the control group did not. The peer encouragement group reported higher RISE and showed increased performance across trials compared with controls. Providing peer encouragement prior to a challenging physical task was associated with more positive RISE perceptions and improved physical performance.
Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of three water-based training on blood pressure (BP) in older women. A total of 57 participants were randomized into the following groups: (a) aerobic training (AT), (b) concurrent training in which resistance training progresses to the use of resistive equipment (CTRE), and (c) concurrent training in which resistance training progresses to multiple sets (CTMS). The participants trained twice a week for 16 weeks. Systolic BP decreased from pretraining to after 8 weeks of training and, subsequently, to after 16 weeks of training (AT: −6.53 mmHg, CTRE: −10.45 mmHg, and CTMS: −10.73 mmHg). Diastolic BP decreased from pretraining to after 8 and 16 weeks of training (AT: −6.23 mmHg, CTRE: −4.61 mmHg, and CTMS: −6.19 mmHg). Furthermore, 16% of the AT participants, 23% of the CTRE participants, and 28.5% of the CTMS participants were no longer classified as hypertensive. Water-based aerobic and concurrent training are efficient nonpharmacological measures to reduce BP in older women.
Adam Beavan, Vincent Chin, Louise M. Ryan, Jan Spielmann, Jan Mayer, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer and Job Fransen
Introduction: Assessments of executive functions (EFs) with varying levels of perceptual information or action fidelity are common talent-diagnostic tools in soccer, yet their validity still has to be established. Therefore, a longitudinal development of EFs in high-level players to understand their relationship with increased exposure to training is required. Methods: A total of 304 high-performing male youth soccer players (10–21 years old) in Germany were assessed across three seasons on various sport-specific and non-sport-specific cognitive functioning assessments. Results: The posterior means (90% highest posterior density) of random slopes indicated that both abilities predominantly developed between 10 and 15 years of age. A plateau was apparent for domain-specific abilities during adolescence, whereas domain-generic abilities improved into young adulthood. Conclusion: The developmental trajectories of soccer players’ EFs follow the general populations’ despite long-term exposure to soccer-specific training and game play. This brings into question the relationship between high-level experience and EFs and renders including EFs in talent identification questionable.
Jesse Mala, Jennifer McGarry, Kristen E. Riley, Elaine C.-H. Lee and Lindsay DiStefano
The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity is related to greater executive functions among youth in poverty. Executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory) and physical activity were measured in participants (N = 149) in the fifth to eighth grade from three schools located in high-poverty districts. Pearson correlations revealed a statistically significant correlation between physical activity and cognitive flexibility (r = .18, p < .05). Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that physical activity significantly improved prediction for cognitive flexibility, R 2 = .09, F(6, 142) = 2.26, p = .041, adjusted R 2 = .05, above sex, maturity, and school district. A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences in working memory in more active youth compared with less active but no statistically significant differences in cognitive flexibility or inhibition (p < .05). Greater physical activity is associated with greater working memory among youth in poverty.
Sapphire H. Lin
This study presents a description and understanding of the physical activity of low-income older adults in Singapore, with specific focus on their communication and interactions with social partners. Ethnographic observations and participant interviews (N = 10) were conducted with a purposive sample. Findings contained descriptions of actual behaviors of the target group and explanations of the influences on their physical activity, ranging from the intrapersonal sphere, to communication with their strong-tie networks, and finally, interactions with the community and environment surrounding them. The author takes a social ecological viewpoint on the topic, uncovering the lived experiences of the target audience, and suggests how theory, research, and practical policies may be improved to better support those at the lower end of the socioeconomic strata.
Karl M. Newell
A review and synthesis of the literature on the learning and development of motor skills supports the postulation that whether a motor skill can be deemed fundamental is dependent on the collective presence of three conditions: (i) uniqueness to the movement pattern and/or outcome; (ii) near universality of the functional outcome in the healthy population; (iii) capacity to act as an antecedent influence supporting generalization to a large and broad set of perceptual-motor skills. Within this framework, it is proposed that the infant motor development sequence underpinning upright posture (e.g., sitting, bipedal standing), locomotion (e.g., walking, running), and object-interaction (e.g., grasping) represents the minimum set of fundamental motor skills from which all other skills evolve with over the lifespan. This position is in contrast to the views of many students of motor development and learning who describe numerous skills that typically emerge in the ∼2- to 18-year-old range as fundamental but do not meet the criteria outlined here to be fundamental. It is proposed that these be labeled as core developmental activities having a more restricted but still practically relevant influence on the acquisition of and generalization to other motor skills.