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Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney

This study examined the effects of perceptions of motor abilities on aerobic and musculoskeletal exercise performance in young children at risk for developmental coordination disorder (rDCD). The participants (N = 539) were part of a larger cohort study, the Coordination and Activity Tracking in Children (CATCH) study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd Edition) was used to determine rDCD children. Perceptions of motor abilities were measured by the Perceived Efficacy and Goals Setting system. Aerobic exercise performance was measured using the Bruce Protocol treadmill test, and musculoskeletal exercise performance was assessed using the standing long jump and the Wingate Anaerobic test. The rDCD children reported lower Perceived Efficacy and Goals Setting scores and performed worse on all exercise performance measures. Perceptions of ability also mediated the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and each exercise performance test. It is concerning that children with low motor coordination report lower perceptions of ability even at a very young age.

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Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu and Benjamin Walters

Objectives: Self–other divergence refers to individuals judging themselves to be different from others. The authors investigated doping-related self-other divergence.Design: The authors used a quasi-experimental repeated-measures design to compare the effects of an independent variable (perspective: self, other) on doping likelihood and guilt. Method: Rugby players rated doping likelihood and guilt in situations describing two perspectives: self (their own behavior and feelings) and other (another player’s behavior and feelings). They also completed measures of moral agency, identity, perfectionism, and values (moral traits). Results: Doping likelihood was lower and guilt was higher for self-based ratings compared with other-based ratings. The self–other difference in doping likelihood was mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits (larger for athletes with higher agency and values). Agency and values were more strongly related to self than other doping likelihood. Conclusions: Other-referenced measures differed from self-referenced measures of doping likelihood and guilt, indicating that it is wrong to presume equivalence of measurement.

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Scott Rathwell, Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, Derrik Motz, Matt D. Hoffmann and Chelsea Currie

Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the validity of 48 items. In Study 2, 383 Masters coaches completed the survey of 50 items. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling indicated issues with model fit. Post hoc modifications improved fit, resulting in a 22-item, five-factor model. In Study 3, 467 Masters athletes responded to these 22 items reflecting perceptions of their coaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (comparative fit index = .951, standardized root mean square residual = .036, and root mean square error of approximation = .049) and exploratory structural equation modeling (comparative fit index = .977, standardized root mean square residual = .019, and root mean square error of approximation = .041) confirmed the model. The resultant Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey provides a reliable and factorially valid instrument for measuring adult-oriented coaching practices.

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Teresa Zwierko, Wojciech Jedziniak, Beata Florkiewicz, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Piotr Lesiakowski, Marta Śliwiak, Marta Kirkiewicz and Wojciech Lubiński

The aim of the study was to explore the functional impairments and related factors in older adults with moderate to advanced stages of glaucoma. Nineteen patients with glaucoma and 19 participants with no ocular disease performed step test and balance control tasks with analysis of overall stability index and fall risk index. Monocular and binocular Humphrey Visual Field tests were used to estimate visual field defect severity. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity level. Patients with glaucoma showed poorer values for most of the mobility and balance control parameters with medium and large effect sizes (0.3–0.5). Mobility scores in patients were partly associated with their monocular visual field defect (rs = .507, p < .05). Low physical activity was identified as a risk factor for falls (rs = −.453, p < .05) and postural instability (rs = −.457, p < .05). Functional declines in dynamic tasks were not related to glaucoma severity. Older adults with glaucoma display impairment with mobility and balance control compared to controls, associated with the degree of monocular visual field loss and lower daily physical activity.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Matthew Stork and Svenja Wolf

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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Thaís Reichert, Vitória Bones and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: There are a lack of clinical trials with suitable methodological quality that compare aquatic exercise training types in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. This study aimed to compare the effects of aerobic and combined aquatic training on cardiorespiratory outcomes in patients with T2D. Methods: Untrained patients with T2D were randomized to receive an aerobic aquatic training, a combined aquatic training, or a procedure control in 3 weekly sessions for 15 weeks. The sessions were 50 minutes long. The intensities were from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold and at maximal velocity for aerobic and resistance parts, respectively. Resting heart rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and its relation with VO2peak were evaluated. Results: Participants were 59.0 (8.2) years old and 51% women. Intervention groups increased in VO2peak (aerobic aquatic training group: 4.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .004; combined aquatic training group: 5.27 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .006) and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold, whereas the control group presented an increase in oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and minimal change in VO2peak. Conclusions: Aerobic and combined aquatic exercise interventions improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of patients with T2D.

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Julia Limmeroth and Norbert Hagemann

Using an evaluative priming procedure, this study tested whether automatic evaluations of running differ among groups based on their amount of exercise and whether they were runners or not. Ninety-five participants (26 ± 5.06 years; 46% female) were divided into five groups: an inactive group, active exercisers, highly active exercisers, active runners, and highly active runners. A priming effect score was calculated based on the concept of response facilitation or inhibition: the reaction is faster when the target and prime are valence congruent and becomes slower if they are incongruent. The highly active runner group differed significantly from the inactive group (p < .01) and from the active exerciser group (p < .05). Furthermore, reflective evaluations were measured via questionnaires. The results show that priming effect scores can detect automatic evaluations of running, and they differ not only because of the amounts of physical exercise but also because of their preferred type of exercise.