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Carrie LeCrom and Michael Naylor

There is no doubt that sport has become a global industry. Therefore, it is crucial that global perspectives be integrated into sport management education, which is no doubt occurring. However, little has been published to date on the impact and effectiveness of curricular strategies aimed at internationalizing sport management education. This special issue provides sport management faculty with thoughtful dialogue on how they can educate their students for what has become an ever-changing global landscape. The articles in this issue capture global perspectives representing the breadth of activity across a burgeoning dimension of sport management education. The authors have used a variety of research designs that, taken together, provide a wide-angle lens on the nature of global sport management education and how effective it can be.

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Danielle R. Madden, Chun Nok Lam, Brian Redline, Eldin Dzubur, Harmony Rhoades, Stephen S. Intille, Genevieve F. Dunton and Benjamin Henwood

Adults with serious mental illness engage in limited physical activity, which contributes to significant health disparities. This study explored the use of both ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and activity trackers in adults with serious mental illness to examine the bidirectional relationship between activity and affect with multilevel modeling. Affective states were assessed up to seven times per day using EMA across 4 days. The participants (n = 20) were equipped with a waist-worn accelerometer to measure moderate to vigorous physical activity. The participants had a mean EMA compliance rate of 88.3%, and over 90% of completed EMAs were matched with 30-min windows of accelerometer wear. The participants who reported more positive affect than others had a higher probability of engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity than one’s usual was associated with more negative affect. This study begins to address the effect of momentary mood on physical activity in a population of adults that is typically difficult to reach.

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Joachim Hüffmeier, Joyce Elena Schleu and Christoph Nohe

Prior research showed that swimmers swim faster in relay than in individual competitions if they start at later relay positions. This finding is typically explained via the swimmers’ relay position and their associated perception that their individual performance is indispensable for their teams’ performance. Using multilevel modeling, the authors disentangled this situational explanation from alternative accounts focusing on individual differences between swimmers. Two studies empirically supported the situational explanation: When using a within-person approach and, thus, controlling for between-person variance (i.e., individual differences between swimmers), the swimmers’ relay position remained a significant predictor of the increases in effort spent in relays. This finding held when controlling for the on-average higher instrumentality in the relay versus the individual competitions. Thus, the often observed effort gains in swimming relays probably are due to the swimmers’ relay position as a situational explanation and stem from the motivating impact of teamwork versus individual work.

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Emma K. Zadow, James W. Fell, Cecilia M. Kitic, Jia Han and Sam S. X. Wu

Context: Time of day has been shown to impact athletic performance, with improved performance observed in the late afternoon–early evening. Diurnal variations in physiological factors may contribute to variations in pacing selection; however, research investigating time-of-day influence on pacing is limited. Purpose: To investigate the influence of time-of-day on pacing selection in a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). Methods: Nineteen trained male cyclists (mean [SD] age 39.0 [10.7] y, height 1.8 [0.1] m, body mass 78.0 [9.4] kg, VO2max 62.1 [8.7] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed a 4-km TT on 5 separate occasions at 08:30, 11:30, 14:30, 17:30, and 20:30. All TTs were completed in a randomized order, separated by a minimum of 2 d and maximum of 7 d. Results: No time-of-day effects were observed in pacing as demonstrated by similar power outputs over 0.5-km intervals (P = .78) or overall mean power output (333.0 [38.9], 339.8 [37.2], 335.5 [31.2], 336.7 [35.2], and 334.9 [35.7] W; P = .45) when TTs were performed at 08:30, 11:30, 14:30, 17:30, and 20:30. Preexercise tympanic temperature demonstrated a time-of-day effect (P < .001), with tympanic temperature higher at 14:30 and 17:30 than at 08:30 and 11:30. Conclusion: While a biological rhythm was present in tympanic temperature, pacing selection and performance when completing a 4-km cycling TT were not influenced by time of day. The findings suggest that well-trained cyclists can maintain a robust pacing strategy for a 4-km TT regardless of time of the day.

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W. James (Jim) Weese

Sport participation, consumption, and management are internationally focused, and the popularity of sport on an international scale shows no signs of slowing down. In fact, there is evidence that the internationalization of sport is rapidly increasing. Most North American institutions of higher learning are similarly focused and have internationalization as a high strategic priority. One could argue that sport management academic programs have not kept pace with these developments that have influenced our field and environment. While progress has been made, there is more to be done. The author chronicles the developments in the internationalization of both sport and higher education and offers eight suggestions to help sport management academicians effectively and efficiently internationalize their programs. Implementing some or all of these suggestions may better prepare graduates in their future endeavors and more effectively align sport management programs with the goals of their respective institution. Internationalization of the discipline would hold useful and practical applications for sport management students and programs.

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Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney

This study examined the effects of perceptions of motor abilities on aerobic and musculoskeletal exercise performance in young children at risk for developmental coordination disorder (rDCD). The participants (N = 539) were part of a larger cohort study, the Coordination and Activity Tracking in Children (CATCH) study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd Edition) was used to determine rDCD children. Perceptions of motor abilities were measured by the Perceived Efficacy and Goals Setting system. Aerobic exercise performance was measured using the Bruce Protocol treadmill test, and musculoskeletal exercise performance was assessed using the standing long jump and the Wingate Anaerobic test. The rDCD children reported lower Perceived Efficacy and Goals Setting scores and performed worse on all exercise performance measures. Perceptions of ability also mediated the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and each exercise performance test. It is concerning that children with low motor coordination report lower perceptions of ability even at a very young age.

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Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu and Benjamin Walters

Objectives: Self–other divergence refers to individuals judging themselves to be different from others. The authors investigated doping-related self-other divergence.Design: The authors used a quasi-experimental repeated-measures design to compare the effects of an independent variable (perspective: self, other) on doping likelihood and guilt. Method: Rugby players rated doping likelihood and guilt in situations describing two perspectives: self (their own behavior and feelings) and other (another player’s behavior and feelings). They also completed measures of moral agency, identity, perfectionism, and values (moral traits). Results: Doping likelihood was lower and guilt was higher for self-based ratings compared with other-based ratings. The self–other difference in doping likelihood was mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits (larger for athletes with higher agency and values). Agency and values were more strongly related to self than other doping likelihood. Conclusions: Other-referenced measures differed from self-referenced measures of doping likelihood and guilt, indicating that it is wrong to presume equivalence of measurement.

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Beatriz Rael, Nuria Romero-Parra, Víctor M. Alfaro-Magallanes, Laura Barba-Moreno, Rocío Cupeiro, Xanne Janse de Jonge, Ana B. Peinado and on Behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group

Purpose: The influence of female sex hormones on body fluid regulation and metabolism homeostasis has been widely studied. However, it remains unclear whether hormone fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle (MC) and with oral contraceptive (OC) use affect body composition (BC). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate BC over the MC and OC cycle in well-trained females. Methods: A total of 52 eumenorrheic and 33 monophasic OC-taking well-trained females participated in this study. Several BC variables were measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis 3 times in the eumenorrheic group (early follicular phase, late follicular phase, and midluteal phase) and on 2 occasions in the OC group (withdrawal phase and active pill phase). Results: Mixed linear model tests reported no significant differences in the BC variables (body weight, body mass index, basal metabolism, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water) between the MC phases or between the OC phases (P > .05 for all comparisons). Trivial and small effect sizes were found for all BC variables when comparing the MC phases in eumenorrheic females, as well as for the OC cycle phases. Conclusions: According to the results, sex hormone fluctuations throughout the menstrual and OC cycle do not influence BC variables measured by bioelectrical impedance in well-trained females. Therefore, it seems that bioimpedance analysis can be conducted at any moment of the cycle, both for eumenorrheic women and women using OC.

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Courtney Sullivan, Thomas Kempton, Patrick Ward and Aaron J. Coutts

Purpose: To develop position-specific career performance trajectories and determine the age of peak performance of professional Australian Football players. Methods: Match performance data (Australian Football League [AFL] Player Rank) were collected for Australian Football players drafted via the AFL National Draft between 1999 and 2015 (N = 207). Players were subdivided into playing positions: forwards (n = 60; age 23 [3] y), defenders (n = 71; age 24 [4] y), midfielders (n = 58; age 24 [4] y), and ruckmen (n = 18; age 24 [3] y). Linear mixed models were fitted to the data to estimate individual career trajectories. Results: Forwards, midfielders, and defenders experienced peak match performance earlier than ruckmen (24–25 vs 27 y). Midfielders demonstrated the greatest between-subjects variability (intercept 0.580, age 0.0286) in comparison with ruckmen, who demonstrated the least variability (intercept 0.112, age 0.005) in AFL Player Rank throughout their careers. Age had the greatest influence on the career trajectory of midfielders (β [SE] = 0.226 [0.025], T = 9.10, P < .01) and the least effect on ruckmen (β [SE] = 0.114 [0.049], T = 2.30, P = .02). Conclusions: Professional Australian Football players peak in match performance between 24 and 27 years of age with age, having the greatest influence on the match performance of midfielders and the least on ruckmen.