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Noora J. Ronkainen, Michael McDougall, Olli Tikkanen, Niels Feddersen and Richard Tahtinen

Meaning in movement is an enduring topic in sport social sciences, but few studies have explored how sport is meaningful and for whom. The authors examined the relationships between demographic variables, meaningfulness of sport, and craftsmanship. Athletes (N = 258, 61.6% male, age ≥18) from the United Kingdom completed a demographic questionnaire, the Work and Meaning Inventory modified for sport, and the Craftsmanship Scale. Older age and individual sport significantly correlated with higher craftsmanship. Craftsmanship and religion were two independent predictors of meaningfulness, but emphasized somewhat different meaning dimensions. Meaningfulness in sport seems to be related to how athletes approach their craft, as well as their overall framework of life meaning.

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Luca Correale, Vittoria Carnevale Pellino, Luca Marin, Massimiliano Febbi and Matteo Vandoni

Spatiotemporal parameters of walking are used to identify gait impairments and provide a tailored therapy program. Baropodometric platforms are not often used for measuring spatiotemporal parameters and walking speed and it is required to determine accuracy. The aim of this study was to compare FreeMed® Platform gait outcomes with a validated inertial measurement unit. There were 40 healthy adults without walking impairments enrolled. Each subject walked along a 15-m walkway at self and slow self-selected speed wearing an inertial measurement unit on the FreeMed® Platform. Stride length and time, right and left stance, swing time, and walking speed were recorded. Walking speed, stride length, and step time showed a very high level of agreement at slow walking speed and a high and moderate level of agreement at normal walking speed. FreeMed® Platform is useful to assess gait outcomes and could improve the exercise prescription.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork and Svenja Wolf

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Joy Khayat, Stéphane Champely, Ahmad Diab, Ahmad Rifai Sarraj and Patrick Fargier

The present study aimed at examining the effect of mental calculation and number comparison on motor performance measured as the movement time of a fast manual-pointing movement. Three experiments, involving a total number of 65 undergraduate subjects, examined the effect of mental subtraction (complex) and, respectively, of (a) mental addition (simple or complex), (b) mental multiplication (simple or complex), and (c) the comparison of dot sets and number comparison. Each number was written in Arabic. The movement times were analyzed by using a multilevel linear mixed-effect model. The results showed significant improvement of manual-pointing movement performance only after the complex calculations and after number comparison. Possible implication of attentional mechanisms specific to this arithmetical activity is further discussed.

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Geovani Messias da Silva and Maria Eduarda Crescencio Bezerra

External focus is a way to guide human movement based on outcome rather than execution, therefore all instructions are provided based on factors present in the environment. The aim of this review is to search information about the effects of external focus in the long jump task and to compare its outcomes with other learning methods. For the research, online database search engines such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Cinahl, and Scopus were used from January 2010 to June 2020. About 41 articles were identified by searching the online databases, 12 were discarded because they were duplicates, 11 were excluded due to the content of the abstract, and finally, 5 were excluded after evaluating the content of the full text, leaving 13 articles to be included in this review. This review sought to summarize the findings in the literature on the use of external focus in the practice of long jump. The authors concluded that the external focus is a relevant approach and can be used as a tool for the learning process.

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Stephanie L. Barrett and Trent A. Petrie

Although researchers have examined eating disorders in female athletes, few such studies have been done with athletes who are retired, and even fewer have been quantitative. Thus, the authors empirically tested an established eating disorder theoretical model with 218 former NCAA Division-I female collegiate athletes who had been retired for 2–6 years. In retirement, participants completed measures of general sociocultural pressures related to body and appearance, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, negative affect, and bulimic symptomatology. Through structural equation modeling, the authors examined the direct and indirect relationships among the latent variables while controlling for body mass index and years since retirement. The model fit the data well, supporting the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships among the variables and explaining 54% of the variance in bulimic symptomatology. Despite no longer being exposed to sport pressures that contribute to eating disorders, female athletes experience such symptoms long into retirement.

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Xiangyu Liu, Meiyu Zhou, Chenyun Dai, Wei Chen and Xinming Ye

Surface electromyogram-based finger motion classification has shown its potential for prosthetic control. However, most current finger motion classification models are subject-specific, requiring calibration when applied to new subjects. Generalized subject-nonspecific models are essential for real-world applications. In this study, the authors developed a subject-nonspecific model based on motor unit (MU) voting. A high-density surface electromyogram was first decomposed into individual MUs. The features extracted from each MU were then fed into a random forest classifier to obtain the finger label (primary prediction). The final prediction was selected by voting for all primary predictions provided by the decomposed MUs. Experiments conducted on 14 subjects demonstrated that our method significantly outperformed traditional methods in the context of subject-nonspecific finger motion classification models.

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Nefertiti A. Walker, Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Marvin Washington, Lauren C. Hindman and Jeffrey MacCharles

Unpaid internships are embedded in sport hegemony. These unpaid sport internships often offer fewer learning opportunities and foster an environment wherein interns feel like “second-class citizens” in their organization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the world of unpaid internships in the sport industry by exploring students’ perspectives of them as an institutionalized practice, as well as how privilege impacts their internship experiences. Grounded in institutional theory, data from semistructured interviews with 17 sports management students were analyzed using the Gioia methodology. Three themes emerged from the findings: the idiosyncratic nature of sport internships, the legitimization of unpaid internships in the sport industry, and the institutionalization of privilege spurred by such positions. Practical implications from the study include increasing sport organizations’ awareness of how unpaid internships disadvantage students from less privileged backgrounds and may, therefore, result in a less socioeconomically diverse workforce in the sport industry.

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Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis and Calum A. Arthur

Using a person-centered approach, the aim of this study was to examine how student-athletes’ motives for multiple-goal pursuit relate to indices of well- and ill-being. Student-athletes (N = 362) from British universities identified the most important sporting and academic goals that they were pursuing over the academic year. The participants rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified, and intrinsic goal motives for each goal and completed measures of well- and ill-being. Latent profile analysis revealed six distinct profiles of goal motives, with variations in both the strength of motives and the motivational quality. Follow-up analyses revealed between-profile differences for well- and ill-being; students with more optimal goal motive profiles reported higher and lower well- and ill-being, respectively, than those with less optimal goal motives. To experience well-being benefits when pursuing multiple goals, student-athletes should strive for their academic and sporting goals with high autonomous and low controlled goal motives.

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Jay Scherer, Judy Davidson, Rylan Kafara and Jordan Koch

The new urban sporting territory in Edmonton’s city center was constructed within the framework of continued settler colonialism. The main catalyst for this development was sport-related gentrification: a new, publicly financed ice hockey arena for the National Hockey League’s Edmonton Oilers, and a surrounding sport and entertainment district. This two-year ethnography explores this territory, in particular the changing interactions between preexisting, less affluent city-center residents and police, private security, crisis workers, and hockey fans. It reveals how residents navigate the physical and spatial changes to a downtown that are not only structured by revanchism, but by what Rai Reece calls “carceral redlining,” or the continuation of White supremacy through regulation, surveillance, displacement, and dispossession.