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Rumit S. Kakar, Hilary B. Greenberger and Patrick O. McKeon

Context: Anterior knee pain also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequently encountered musculoskeletal disorder that worsens with activity. The multifactorial etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome alters lower-extremity mechanics, increasing patellofemoral joint stresses during weight-bearing tasks. Kinesio and McConnell tapings are often incorporated into the treatment, but their efficacy is still unclear. Objective: To test the efficacy of Kinesio taping, McConnell taping, and sham taping in improving knee mechanics and reducing pain during activity. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Clinical biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Ten participants (age: 20.3 [1.5] y, height: 169.9 [10.4] cm, and mass: 70.17 [13.1] kg) with anterior knee pain and no history of trauma. Intervention: Three trials each of squat, drop jump, and step-down tasks with 3 taping conditions in a counterbalanced order. Main Outcome Measures: Two-dimensional motion capture data of lower-extremities in frontal and sagittal planes were recorded and analyzed using 3 iPads and Spark Motion® application. Pooled effect sizes (Hedges’ g), 95% confidence intervals, and repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05) compared baseline and taping conditions during exercises for pain Visual Analog Scale and knee flexion in all exercises, hip abduction during step-down and drop jump, frontal plane projection during step-downs, and knee translation in sagittal plane during squats. Results: Significant reductions in Visual Analog Scale were recorded during squats between tapes (F 2.505,12.867 = 3.407, P = .04, Hedges’ g = −0.70). Pairwise comparison showed a decrease in Visual Analog Scale for sham taping (mean difference = 1.14 cm, P = .01) and Kinesio taping (mean difference = 1.54 cm, P = .02) compared with baseline during squats. Conclusions: A variety of taping methods can potentially reduce perceived pain in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome, allowing clinicians to perform rehabilitation exercises. Sensory effects associated with short-term taping may be sufficient enough to modify knee pain acutely by afferent input blocking nocioceptive pain before the participants could adapt. Most interestingly, the sham taping technique demonstrated promise for enhancing functional outcomes, depending on the length of the tape and area covered.

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Luke Wilkins, Jen Sweeney, Zoella Zaborski, Carl Nelson, Simon Tweddle, Eldre Beukes and Peter Allen

The purpose of the present study was to address perceptions towards Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in soccer. Twenty-four male, elite academy soccer players (M age = 20.04) completed a custom-made questionnaire which included education on CBT. The results found that: i) initially, only 8% of players had heard of CBT whilst only 4% of players knew what CBT was, ii) players strongly agreed that CBT should be offered to all players, iii) not knowing how/where to seek help was identified as the main barrier to CBT, iv) players indicated a preference for one-to-one and face-to-face CBT, as opposed to small-group or online-CBT, and v) players perceived they would receive most support from family/friends, and least support from teammates, if they were to undertake CBT. These findings demonstrate that whilst initial awareness and knowledge of CBT is low, general perceptions towards CBT are positive once athletes are educated on the area.

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Bradley Donohue, Marina Galante, Julia Maietta, Bern Lee, Nina Paul, Joanne E. Perry, Arianna Corey and Daniel N. Allen

The conspicuous absence of validated screening measures specific to mental health symptomology in collegiate athletes has negatively affected clinical practice in this population. Therefore, this study was performed to develop a sport specific measure to optimally identify collegiate athletes who are particularly likely to benefit from mental health programming. Participants were 289 collegiate-athletes who were assessed for mental health symptomology using the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (GSI), factors that interfere with sport performance using the Problems in Sport Competition Scale (PSCS) and Problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS), and motivation to pursue professional counseling using the Desire to Pursue Sport Psychology Scale (DSPS). As hypothesized, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that PSCS, PSTS and DSPS scores significantly predicted GSI scores, controlling gender and sport status (NCAA, club, intramural). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that high-risk athletes (GSI T-scores ≥ 60) could be correctly classified by PSTS and PSCS scores. Results suggest the PSCS and PSTS may assist identification of collegiate athletes who are especially appropriate for mental health programs. These scales additionally identify factors directly relevant to athletes’ sport performance.

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Susan W. Yeargin, Yuri Hosokawa, Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Lauren A. Pierpoint and Douglas J. Casa

Context: Recent data on exertional heat illness (EHI) in high school sports are limited yet warranted to identify specific settings with the highest risk of EHI. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of EHI in high school sports during the 2012/2013–2016/2017 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from athletic trainers working in high school sports in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: High school athletes during the 2012/2013–2016/2017 academic years. Intervention: High School Reporting Information Online surveillance system data from the 2012/2013–2016/2017 academic years were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: EHI counts, rates per 10,000 athlete exposures (AEs), and distributions were examined by sport, event type, and US census region. EHI management strategies provided by athletic trainers were analyzed. Injury rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared EHI rates. Results: Overall, 300 EHIs were reported for an overall rate of 0.13/10,000 AE (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.14). Of these, 44.3% occurred in American football preseason practices; 20.7% occurred in American football preseason practices with a registered air temperature ≥90°F and ≥1 hour into practice. The EHI rate was higher in American football than all other sports (0.52 vs 0.04/10,000 AE; injury rate ratio = 11.87; 95% CI, 9.22 to 15.27). However, girls’ cross-country had the highest competition EHI rate (1.18/10,000 AE). The EHI rate was higher in the South US census region than all other US census regions (0.23 vs 0.08/10,000 AE; injury rate ratio = 2.96; 95% CI, 2.35 to 3.74). Common EHI management strategies included having medical staff on-site at the onset of EHI (92.7%), removing athlete from play (85.0%), and giving athlete fluids via the mouth (77.7%). Conclusions: American football continues to have the highest overall EHI rate although the high competition EHI rate in girls’ cross-country merits additional examination. Regional differences in EHI incidence, coupled with sport-specific variations in management, may highlight the need for region- and sport-specific EHI prevention guidelines.

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Armand A. Buzzelli and Jason A. Draper

Pickleball, a paddle sport that combines aspects of tennis, badminton, and table tennis, is one of the fastest growing sports in America. The sport is especially popular with older adults as it provides a means for both competition and exercise. Limited research is available on the motivation and perceived benefits of participants in this unique and growing community. A total of 3,012 participants completed a survey instrument that included items from the Sport Motivation Scale, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and the Quality and Importance of Recreational Services. Participants reported being more task oriented than ego oriented, suggesting that pickleball may effectively satisfy the need for persons to be engaged in physical activities that allow for the ongoing development of personal mastery. This finding is supported by respondents noting that their primary motivation to participate in pickleball involved mastering difficult training techniques. However, participants cited competition as the top perceived benefit to their participation. This result supports two possible conclusions that motivation and benefit are different and potentially disconnected constructs or that the benefit of competition among this sample of older persons is understood through the lens of personal mastery, whereby the demonstration of that mastery is only possible through competition.

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Nicole T. Gabana, Aaron D’Addario, Matteo Luzzeri, Stinne Soendergaard and Y. Joel Wong

Salient aspects of an athlete’s identity hold implications for how sport psychology practitioners conceptualize and intervene on both the mental health and performance realms of the athlete person. Given that spirituality, religiosity, and gratitude have been associated in previous literature, the current study examined whether athletes differed in dispositional gratitude based on their spiritual and religious identification. Results indicated that among 331 NCAA Division I-III athletes, those who identified as both spiritual and religious scored significantly higher in dispositional gratitude than self-identified spiritual/non-religious and non-spiritual/non-religious athletes. Non-spiritual/non-religious and spiritual/non-religious athletes did not significantly differ in levels of gratitude. Findings and limitations of the current study warrant further investigation on this topic, and recommendations for future research and practice are provided.

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik and Nikki Barczak

Sport specialization has been linked to multiple negative health related outcomes including increased injury risk and sport attrition, yet a gap remains in our understanding of potential psychological outcomes of early specialization (≤ age 12). The current study evaluated the associations between retrospective athlete reports of sport specialization and both retroactive and current psychological health outcomes. Early specializers reported significantly higher levels of multiple maladaptive psychological outcomes (e.g., global athlete burnout, emotional and physical exhaustion, sport devaluation, amotivation). Overall, findings suggest that specialization environment factors, in addition to the age of specialization, are potentially critical factors in determining health and well-being outcomes. Findings support prominent position statements suggesting early specialization may be associated with increased health risks. Study findings may also inform the development of guidelines and recommendations to aid parents, coaches, and athletes in positively impacting athlete psychosocial outcomes.

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Andrew C. White, Amanda J. Wambach and Victor J. Rubio

The purpose of this study was to explore religiosity/spirituality (R/S) in coping with sport injuries, based on predictions of the integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process. A concurrent mixed methods design framed an online survey incorporating quantitative measures of R/S identification and commitment, health locus of control for sport injury, and ways of coping with sport injury, as well as qualitative open-ended questions about mechanisms through which R/S affected and was affected by coping with sport injuries. Participants included 49 physically active adults who experienced sport injuries, with 37 identifying as R/S. Quantitative findings among R/S participants showed religious commitment was a predictor of God health locus of control and positive religious coping. Quantitative results relative to differences between R/S and no-R/S participants showed that those self-identified as R/S relied on a God health locus of control and utilized active coping more so than did those self-identified as no-R/S, whereas no-R/S participants relied more than did R/S participants on an internal health locus of control. Thematic analyses exploring qualitative data revealed three main themes characterizing mechanisms through which R/S affected and was affected by coping with sport injuries: positive, negative, and no R/S coping strategies and effects. Findings support the predictions of the integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process and provide evidence-bases for clinical and counseling interventions that reflect cultural competence in accommodating patient or client R/S during recovery from sport injury.

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Jack Thomas Sugden, Daryl Adair, Nico Schulenkorf and Stephen Frawley

There is a key tension associated with ethnographic explorations into the lives of people in the Global South – ‘outsider’ researchers from the Global North who lack experience of the environments they are seeking to understand. A considered response, therefore, is for scholars to seek physical immersion in a field—to live among those they are trying to understand. Such ethnographic inquiries are optimal when researchers have the capacity to engage over long periods of time. However, in some circumstances, this may not feasible. Thus, questions arise about the veracity of field work investigations that are not only temporally brief but undertaken by scholars who lack local experience. This paper reflects on the experiences of a researcher who was faced with those challenges. It provides guidance as to how scholars might prepare for short-term ethnography (STE) in field work, along with the limitations and constraints of such an approach. The research centered on a sport for development and peace study into intergroup relations and ethnic separatism in Fijian sport.

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

Purpose: A comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is designed to help school-aged youth meet physical activity guidelines as well as develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that foster meaningful lifelong physical activity participation. In this study, we employed a “diffusion of innovations theory” perspective to examine the adoption of CSPAPs in relation to physical education teachers’ domain-specific innovativeness, educational background, demographics, and perceived school support. Methods: Physical education teachers (N = 407) responded to an electronic survey with validated measures for each of the above-mentioned variables. Results: Latent profile analysis classified teachers into three domain-specific innovativeness levels (high, average, and low). CSPAP-related professional training, knowledge, and perceived school support were found to be significant factors in domain-specific innovativeness and CSPAP adoption. Discussion/Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence to inform professional development initiatives so that they can be tailored to physical education teachers who may be less likely to adopt a CSPAP.