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Yoko Kanemasu

This article explores the nexus between power, sport, and disability with a focus on Deaf rugby in Fiji. Based on semistructured interviews with players, officials, and stakeholders, this article outlines their pursuit of rugby and participation in a recent international tournament under Fiji’s specific postcolonial social conditions. It examines what this experience means to the players and officials, and the sociopolitical significance it holds in the multiple relations of power that the game is embedded in. This article shows Deaf rugby as a significant counterhegemonic force that reconfigures Fiji’s rugby discourse by appropriating its key constitutive element: anti-imperialist modern nationalism. This article further explores Deaf rugby’s implication in prevailing gender/ethnoracial/corporeal politics with a view to offering nuanced insights into the question of resistance in/through disability sport in a Global South context.

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Seungho Woo, Hwan Son and Karam Lee

Zainichi Koreans are a unique political product of the Korean Peninsula. They were taken to Japan under the Japanese occupation (1910–45) of Korea and stayed there without becoming naturalized Japanese citizens. Baseball was a mechanism for the children of Zainichi Koreans, who were oppressed on Japanese soil, to overcome the discrimination they were experiencing in their daily lives and assimilate into Japanese society. From 1956 to 1970, South Korean newspapers invited Zainichi Korean children playing baseball to their home country for regular national baseball exchanges. This event provided nourishment for the growth of Korean baseball and served as the only cultural bridge for Zainichi Korean children to experience and understand their motherland, which they had previously only imagined.

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Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Moisés Picón-Martínez, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Diego Alexandre Alonso-Aubin and Yasser Alakhdar

Context: Blood flow restriction research has focused on muscular strength and hypertrophy. Limited data have been reported about the blood flow restriction effect on the tendon. Objective: To analyze and compare the time course of recovery in Achilles tendon thickness after a single bout of low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) and low-intensity blood flow restriction training (LI-BFRT). Methods: A total of 56 healthy participants (24.60 [4.0] y; 23.65 [3.4] body mass index) were included. The dominant leg was assigned for LI-BFRT using low load (30% 1-repetition maximum) and 30% of the total occlusion pressure (52.21 [17.89] mm Hg) in plantar-flexion exercise (1 × 30 + 3 × 15 repetitions). The nondominant leg was assumed as a control condition. Main Outcome Measure: Sonography images were taken before the intervention, immediately posttraining, and 24 hours after exercise (post-24) for the Achilles tendon thickness. Results: Changes in Achilles tendon thickness for LI-BFRT group were significant post- (−14.5%; P < .05) and post-24 (−9.2%; P < .05). In contrast, LI-RT group showed a transient decrease after exercise (−9.67%; P < .05) followed by a recovery of thickness post-24 (−1.06%; P < .05). Thickness post-24 was different between LI-BFRT versus LI-RT (P < .01). Hedge effect size analysis showed a large effect (g = 0.90) in LI-BFRT pre–post condition and a medium effect (g = 0.57) in post- to post-24. The LI-RT obtained a medium effect (g = 0.53) in pre–post condition and a small effect (g = 0.49) in post- to post-24. Conclusions: This study showed a different time course of the acute response in Achilles tendon thickness between LI-BFRT and LI-RT. This may be associated with intratendinous fluid movement in response to LI-BFRT.

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Jung-Hoon Choi, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Tae-Lim Yoon and Seung-Min Baik

Context: The improvement of hip joint stability can significantly impact knee and rearfoot mechanics. Individuals with pes planus have a weak abductor hallucis (AbdH), and the tibialis anterior (TA) may activate to compensate for this. As yet, no studies have applied isometric hip abduction (IHA) for hip stability during short-foot exercise (SFE). Objective: To compare the effects of IHA on the muscle activity of the AbdH, TA, peroneus longus (PL), and gluteus medius (Gmed), as well as the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) angle during sitting and standing SFE. Design: Two-way repeated analyses of variance were used to determine the statistical significance of AbdH, TA, PL, and Gmed electromyography activity, as well as the change in MLA angle. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Thirty-two participants with pes planus. Intervention(s): The participants performed SFE with and without isometric hip abduction in sitting and standing positions. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure the activity of the AbdH, TA, PL, and Gmed muscles, and Image J was used to measure the MLA angle. Results: Significant interactions between exercise type and position were observed in terms of the PL muscle activity and in the change in MLA angle only, while other muscles showed significant main effects. The IHA during SFE significantly increased the AbdH muscle activity, while the TA muscle activity was significantly lower. The muscle activity of Gmed and PL was significantly increased in the standing position compared with sitting, but there was no significant difference with or without IHA. The change in the MLA angle was significantly greater in SFE with IHA in a standing position than in the other SFE conditions. Conclusions: IHA may be an effective method for reducing compensatory TA activity and increasing AbdH muscle activity during SFE for individuals with pes planus.

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Stijn Schouppe, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Jan R. Wiersema, Stefaan Van Damme, Tine Willems and Lieven Danneels

The contribution of central factors to movement preparation (e.g., the contingent negative variation [CNV]) and the influence of fatigue on such factors are still unclear, even though executive cognitive functions are regarded as key elements in motor control. Therefore, this study examined CNV amplitude with electroencephalography in 22 healthy humans during a rapid arm movement task prior to and following three experimental conditions: (a) a no exertion/control condition, (b) a physical exertion, and (c) a cognitive exertion. CNV amplitude was affected neither by a single bout of physical/cognitive exertion nor by the control condition. Furthermore, no time-on-task effects of the rapid arm movement task on the CNV were found. Exertion did not affect cortical movement preparation, which is in contrast to previous findings regarding time-on-task effects of exertion on CNV. Based on the current findings, the rapid arm movement task is deemed suitable to measure cortical movement preparation, without being affected by learning effects and physical/cognitive exertion.

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Brendon P. Hyndman and Stephen Harvey

Purpose: Limited research has been conducted relating to the use of social media during health and physical education teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate preservice teachers’ perceptions of the value of using Twitter for health and physical education teacher education. Methods: Preservice teachers completed a qualitatively designed survey. Thematic analyses were conducted via Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software, aligned to self-determination theory. Results: Twitter was perceived to be valuable for the following motivational components: (a) autonomy (choice over professional development, latest ideas, and learning flexibility), (b) relatedness (enhancing communication, tailored collaborations, and receiving practical support), and (c) competence (transferring ideas to classes, increasing technological competence, and keeping ahead of other teachers). Yet there were concerns due to Twitter’s public exposure to undesired Twitter users (relatedness) and how to navigate the platform (competence). Discussion/Conclusions: The study provides guidance to health and physical education teacher education providers on how digital learning via Twitter can meet preservice teachers’ learning needs.

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Kira L. Innes, Jeffrey D. Graham and Steven R. Bray

Social interactions are theorized to inform relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE), which, in turn, may influence self-efficacy and behavior. This study investigated the effects of peer encouragement on RISE, task self-efficacy, and physical performance. Children (N = 84) were assigned to dyads and randomized to provide peer encouragement to one another or not (control group). Participants completed two endurance handgrip trials, separated by a cognitively demanding task intended to induce mental fatigue and increase the salience of the peer encouragement manipulation. Participants in the experimental group exchanged words of encouragement prior to the second endurance trial, whereas those in the control group did not. The peer encouragement group reported higher RISE and showed increased performance across trials compared with controls. Providing peer encouragement prior to a challenging physical task was associated with more positive RISE perceptions and improved physical performance.

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Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of three water-based training on blood pressure (BP) in older women. A total of 57 participants were randomized into the following groups: (a) aerobic training (AT), (b) concurrent training in which resistance training progresses to the use of resistive equipment (CTRE), and (c) concurrent training in which resistance training progresses to multiple sets (CTMS). The participants trained twice a week for 16 weeks. Systolic BP decreased from pretraining to after 8 weeks of training and, subsequently, to after 16 weeks of training (AT: −6.53 mmHg, CTRE: −10.45 mmHg, and CTMS: −10.73 mmHg). Diastolic BP decreased from pretraining to after 8 and 16 weeks of training (AT: −6.23 mmHg, CTRE: −4.61 mmHg, and CTMS: −6.19 mmHg). Furthermore, 16% of the AT participants, 23% of the CTRE participants, and 28.5% of the CTMS participants were no longer classified as hypertensive. Water-based aerobic and concurrent training are efficient nonpharmacological measures to reduce BP in older women.

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Adam Beavan, Vincent Chin, Louise M. Ryan, Jan Spielmann, Jan Mayer, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer and Job Fransen

Introduction: Assessments of executive functions (EFs) with varying levels of perceptual information or action fidelity are common talent-diagnostic tools in soccer, yet their validity still has to be established. Therefore, a longitudinal development of EFs in high-level players to understand their relationship with increased exposure to training is required. Methods: A total of 304 high-performing male youth soccer players (10–21 years old) in Germany were assessed across three seasons on various sport-specific and non-sport-specific cognitive functioning assessments. Results: The posterior means (90% highest posterior density) of random slopes indicated that both abilities predominantly developed between 10 and 15 years of age. A plateau was apparent for domain-specific abilities during adolescence, whereas domain-generic abilities improved into young adulthood. Conclusion: The developmental trajectories of soccer players’ EFs follow the general populations’ despite long-term exposure to soccer-specific training and game play. This brings into question the relationship between high-level experience and EFs and renders including EFs in talent identification questionable.

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Jesse Mala, Jennifer McGarry, Kristen E. Riley, Elaine C.-H. Lee and Lindsay DiStefano

The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity is related to greater executive functions among youth in poverty. Executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory) and physical activity were measured in participants (N = 149) in the fifth to eighth grade from three schools located in high-poverty districts. Pearson correlations revealed a statistically significant correlation between physical activity and cognitive flexibility (r = .18, p < .05). Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that physical activity significantly improved prediction for cognitive flexibility, R 2 = .09, F(6, 142) = 2.26, p = .041, adjusted R 2 = .05, above sex, maturity, and school district. A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences in working memory in more active youth compared with less active but no statistically significant differences in cognitive flexibility or inhibition (p < .05). Greater physical activity is associated with greater working memory among youth in poverty.