This research uses social role theory to investigate gender differences in volunteers at the Special Olympics and interrelationships among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers at the 2014 National Summer Special Olympics in Germany were surveyed (n = 891). Multigroup structural equation modeling has revealed gender differences among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers primarily volunteered for personal growth. Further, motivations had a significant association with commitment and social capital. The impact of motivation on social capital was significantly mediated by commitment. Event organizers should market opportunities to volunteer by emphasizing opportunities for personal growth and appealing to specific values.
Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi
Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du
In this brand community analysis, the authors utilized both the social identity approach and network theory to examine the multiple identities and patterns of interactions among members of an official soccer supporters club. Based on the Multiple In-Group Identity Framework and the brand community triad, the authors differentiated between team and supporter club identity to explore how each affects consumption behaviors. Furthermore, the authors explored the nature of fan relationships based on network principles of multiplexity and homophily as they relate to consumption and socializing ties among fan club members. They also explored the network structure of the brand community. Using both network theory and network methodologies, the authors examined how the multiple identities and many relationships within the brand community affect the consumption behaviors of fan club members. Theoretical and practical implications were considered as they relate to sport consumer behavior and sport marketing.
Stephen Hills, Matthew Walker and Marlene Dixon
For sport for development practitioners, a theory of change document is a critical first step to map how program inputs yield the desired program outcomes. Yet, in our experience, this document is rarely created in practice. Accordingly, this study makes use of the case of an award-winning sport for development charity that expanded their operations from India to London to illustrate the pejorative implications resulting from failing to create a theory of change. A mixed-methods, quasi-experimental approach was utilized to understand program mechanisms, program processes, and how these influenced the aggregate participant experience. The quantitative analyses yielded no significant effects. Triangulating the qualitative data revealed that personal, social, health, and economic education was a competing product to the program. The limited effects are attributed to a failure to identify and attempt to assuage a local social problem. In addition, alignments with stakeholder expectations, program context, and legal requirements were also derailing. A discussion of the results, implications, and recommendations for establishing and implementing a theory of change are provided.
Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou
Many Nations are increasingly investing public money in elite sport on the belief that this will trigger a range of benefits for the population. However, there is lack of insight into how the population perceives elite sport’s impact on society. This study developed and tested a measurement scale assessing the publics’ beliefs of the positive and negative societal impacts that could potentially flow from elite sport. A sample of the Belgian population (N = 1,102) was surveyed. A 32-item scale was built using principal component and confirmatory factor analysis procedures for which the goodness-of-fit indices were excellent. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Belgian population perceived elite sport to have mostly positive societal impacts. The study findings can serve researchers wanting to measure the perceived potential positive and negative societal impacts of elite sport.
Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh
The scholars of sport for development (SFD) suggest the need for advancements in theory development and stronger connections between practice and theory. This article outlines some of the challenges and barriers to theory development in SFD and suggests ways to move forward. The authors state that theories and frameworks in SFD are underdeveloped as a result of methodological and contextual challenges due to the variance in SFD programming. The SFD programs are being implemented across the globe in a myriad of countries and contexts, addressing varying social issues that make theory development challenging. Suggestions are put forward to help scholars and practitioners overcome these challenges, including creativity in methodology, collaborations in program assessment, and the need for patience required of fields focusing on social and behavioral change.
Sarah Edney, Tim Olds, Jillian Ryan, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Rachel Curtis and Carol Maher
Background: Homophily is the tendency to associate with friends similar to ourselves. This study explored the effects of homophily on team formation in a physical activity challenge in which “captains” signed up their Facebook friends to form teams. Methods: This study assessed whether participants (n = 430) were more similar to their teammates than to nonteammates with regard to age, sex, education level, body mass index, self-reported and objectively measured physical activity, and negative emotional states; and whether captains were more similar to their own teammates than to nonteammates. Variability indices were calculated for each team, and a hypothetical variability index, representing that which would result from randomly assembled teams, was also calculated. Results: Within-team variability was less than that for random teams for all outcomes except education level and depression, with differences (SDs) ranging from +0.15 (self-reported physical activity) to +0.47 (age) (P < .001 to P = .001). Captains were similar to their teammates except in regard to age, with captains being 2.6 years younger (P = .003). Conclusions: Results support hypotheses that self-selected teams are likely to contain individuals with similar characteristics, highlighting potential to leverage team-based health interventions to target specific populations by instructing individuals with risk characteristics to form teams to help change behavior.
Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee
Background: Children and youths from low-income families and certain ethnic minority groups show high levels of risk and vulnerability to physical inactivity. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in children and youths from low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) families. Methods: Eight databases were systematically searched for PA interventions for LIEM children and youths. Twenty-six studies were included in the analyses. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using a random-effects model. The ESs were computed using Hedges g with 95% confidence interval. Results: There were small to medium effects of interventions on PA in LIEM children and youth (Q = 1499.193, df = 30, P < .05; I 2 = 97.999). Analyses on the moderator variables showed that ES for participants aged 9–12 years (ES = 0.542, P = .01); intervention length less than 13 weeks (ES = 0.561, P = .01); specialists as the intervention agent (ES = 0.680, P < .05); interventions without technology (ES = 0.363, P = .02); and interventions with a behavioral modification component (ES = 0.336, P = .03) were significantly different from zero. Conclusion: PA intervention can be an effective strategy to increase PA for LIEM children and youths.
Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde
Background: To maintain increases in physical activity (PA), interventions that implement group dynamics principles and strategies with the intent of enhancing group cohesion may be advantageous. This study examined group cohesion and PA following a group dynamics-based PA intervention among breast cancer survivors. Methods: The study was designed as a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing an 8-week group dynamics-based intervention with an individually supervised intervention. Group cohesion was measured by the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire, and PA was measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up using a self-report questionnaire and pedometer. Results: Group cohesion levels were high following the intervention and positively associated with PA at 3-month follow-up (ranger = .182–.555). At 3-month follow-up, 91.7% of participants in the group-dynamics-based intervention (n = 12) were classified as moderately active or greater, compared with 54.5% in the individually supervised intervention (n = 11). Conclusions: These results suggest that, for breast cancer survivors, peer support and fostering group cohesion as part of an exercise program may help to support PA following the completion of a structured intervention. A larger trial with longer follow-up is needed to establish comparative efficacy for a group-dynamics-based exercise intervention to enhance long-term PA adherence in breast cancer survivors.
Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Joan Úbeda-Colomer, Jorge Lizandra, Carmen Peiró-Velert and José Devís-Devís
Background: Active gaming has emerged as a new option to foster physical activity in youth. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of active gaming in adolescents, to determine differences between active and nonactive gamers by type of day, and to examine predictors of being an active gamer. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 3095 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who self-reported their involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and active gaming. Those engaging in active gaming for at least 10 minutes per day were considered active gamers. Student’s 2-tailed t tests, chi-square test, and binomial logistic regression were performed. Results: About 25.9% of the adolescents were active gamers. They were younger, had higher body mass index, and spent more time on moderate to vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and sedentary video games with computer/console than nonactive gamers. There were more active gamers on weekends than on weekdays. On weekdays, more males than females were active gamers. Adolescents who did not meet sleep time guidelines were more likely to be active gamers on weekdays, whereas on weekends, being a girl, overweight/obese, and having a high socioeconomic status were predictors of being an active gamer. Conclusion: Because active gaming may contribute to meeting physical activity guidelines, the present findings could enable better targeting of physical activity promotion programs.
Danilo R. Silva, Cláudia S. Minderico, Pedro B. Júdice, André O. Werneck, David Ohara, Edilson S. Cyrino and Luís B. Sardinha
Background: This investigation aimed to analyze the agreement between the GT3X accelerometer and the ActivPAL inclinometer for estimating and detecting changes in sedentary behavior of different contexts among adolescents. Methods: Secondary data from an intervention using standing desks in the classroom conducted within 2 sixth-grade classes (intervention [n = 22] and control [n = 27]) were used. The intervention took place over 16 weeks, with activity assessments (ActivPAL and GT3X) being performed 7 days before and in the last week of the intervention. Baseline information from both groups was considered for cross-sectional analysis (209 valid days), while data from 20 participants (intervention group) were used for longitudinal analysis. Results: The authors observed that GT3X overestimated sedentary time at school (16.8%), after school (13.5%), and during weekends (7.3%) compared with ActivPAL (P < .05). Outside the school (after school [r = −.188] and on weekends [r = −.260]), there was a trend to higher overestimation among adolescents with less sedentary behavior. Longitudinally, the GT3X was unable to detect changes resulting from an intervention in school hours (ActivPAL = −34.7 min·9 h−1 vs GT3X = +6.7 min·9 h−1; P < .05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that GT3X (cut-point of <100 counts·min−1) overestimated sedentary time of free-living activities and did not detect changes resulting from a classroom standing desk intervention in adolescents.