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Jongbum Ko, Dalton Deprez, Keely Shaw, Jane Alcorn, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Corey Tomczak, Heather Foulds and Philip D. Chilibeck

Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended for reducing blood pressure; however, recent studies indicate that stretching may also be effective. The authors compared 8 weeks of stretching versus walking exercise in men and women with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension (ie, 130/85–159/99 mm Hg). Methods: Forty men and women (61.6 y) were randomized to a stretching or brisk walking exercise program (30 min/d, 5 d/wk for 8 wk). Blood pressure was assessed during sitting and supine positions and for 24 hours using a portable monitor before and after the training programs. Results: The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for sitting systolic (146 [9] to 140 [12] vs 139 [9] to 142 [12] mm Hg), supine diastolic (85 [7] to 78 [8] vs 81 [7] to 82 [7] mm Hg), and nighttime diastolic (67 [8] to 65 [10] vs 68 [8] to 73 [12] mm Hg) blood pressures. The stretching program elicited greater reductions than the walking program (P < .05) for mean arterial pressure assessed in sitting (108 [7] to 103 [6] vs 105 [6] vs 105 [8] mm Hg), supine (102 [9] to 96 [9] vs 99 [6] to 99 [7] mm Hg), and at night (86 [9] to 83 [10] vs 88 [9] to 93 [12] mm Hg). Conclusions: An 8-week stretching program was superior to brisk walking for reducing blood pressure in individuals with high–normal blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension.

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Seungmin Lee, Adam McMahon, Isaac Prilleltensky, Nicholas D. Myers, Samantha Dietz, Ora Prilleltensky, Karin A. Pfeiffer, André G. Bateman and Ahnalee M. Brincks

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Fun For Wellness (FFW) online intervention to increase well-being actions in adults with obesity in the United States in relatively uncontrolled settings. The FFW intervention is guided by self-efficacy theory. The study design was a large-scale, prospective, double-blind, and parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Data collection occurred at baseline, 30 days after baseline, and 60 days after baseline. Participants (N = 667) who were assigned to the FFW group (n FFW = 331) were provided with 30 days of 24-hr access to FFW. Supportive evidence was provided for the effectiveness of FFW in real-world settings to promote, either directly or indirectly, three dimensions of well-being actions: community, occupational, and psychological. This study shows that theory-based intervention may be effective in promoting well-being actions in adults with obesity in the United States.

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Cheryl A. Coker and Brittney Herrick

The adoption of compensatory movement patterns occurs when limitations in mobility, stability, or motor control prevent proper motion from occurring. These dysfunctional movements may inhibit fundamental motor skill development and negatively influence perceived movement competence, impeding the development of physical literacy. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between functional movement and perceived and actual motor skill competence in young adolescents. Functional movement proficiency was determined using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), which provides three variables of interest: (a) FMS total score, (b) number of asymmetries, and (c) number of movement pattern dysfunctions. Perceived physical competence was assessed through the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile. Finally, the Get Skilled: Get Active process-oriented motor skill assessment was used to evaluate vertical jump, kick, run, and overhand throw proficiency. A significant positive correlation between FMS total score and vertical jump performance was found. A positive relationship was also found between the number of asymmetries and overhand throw performance. The Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile constructs of body attractiveness and physical condition were positively associated with FMS total score, and physical condition was also shown to be inversely related to the number of movement pattern dysfunctions. Results suggest that functional movement may underpin movement competence and confidence.

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Priya Patel, Seungmin Lee, Nicholas D. Myers and Mei-Hua Lee

Missing data incidents are common in experimental studies of motor learning and development. Inadequate handling of missing data may lead to serious problems, such as addition of bias, reduction in power, and so on. Thus, this study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the past (2007) and present (2017) practices used for reporting and analyzing missing data in motor learning and development. For this purpose, the authors reviewed 309 articles from five journals focusing on motor learning and development studies and published in 2007 and 2017. The authors carefully reviewed each article using a six-stage review process to assess the reporting and analyzing practices. Reporting of missing data along with reasons for their presence was consistently high across time, which slightly increased in 2017. Researchers predominantly used older methods (mainly deletion) for analysis, which only showed a small increase in the use of newer methods in 2017. While reporting practices were exemplary, missing data analysis calls for serious attention. Improvements in missing data handling may have the merit to address some of the major issues, such as underpowered studies, in motor learning and development.

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Anita Kulik, Ewelina Rosłoniec, Przemysław Madejski, Anna Spannbauer, Leszek Zguczyński, Piotr Mika and Dorota Pilecka

The primary aim was to assess the test–retest reliability of an outdoor walking test with a global positioning system device in older women in a community setting. In addition, correlations between the suggested test and various tests recommended to evaluate muscle strength, walking speed, and self-perceived health status in older adults were studied. The study included 40 women aged 68 (SD = 5) years. The primary outcomes were total walked distance and mean walking speed. The secondary outcomes were lower-body strength, heart rate, speed in a 4-m walk test, and self-perceived health status. The intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for the total walked distance, mean walking speed, and mean heart rate were .94, .92, and .37, respectively. Thus, the suggested outdoor walking test with the application of a global positioning system device may be considered a reliable test tool, which can be recommended for the evaluation of walking ability among older women in a community setting.

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Sunwoo Lee

The current study examined how a perceived neighborhood environment was associated with older adults’ walking activity and the experience of positive affect. Study sample comprised 10,700 older adults, aged 65+, sampled from the Health and Retirement Study 2014–2015 in the United States. Results indicated that neighborhood social cohesion was significantly predicting older adults’ walking and positive affect. It was also revealed that walking engagement significantly contributed to the measure of positive affect. However, perceived neighborhood physical disorder did not account for additional variance in walking and positive affect. Final structural model involved three latent factors—neighborhood social cohesion, walking, and positive affect—and the goodness-of-fit indices of the model indicated an acceptable fit to the sample data. Public health and physical activity intervention in the context of neighborhood environment should facilitate social integration and informal social support that the neighborhood creates.

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Sophie E. Claudel, Kosuke Tamura, James Troendle, Marcus R. Andrews, Joniqua N. Ceasar, Valerie M. Mitchell, Nithya Vijayakumar and Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley

There is no established method for processing data from commercially available physical activity trackers. This study aims to develop a standardized approach to defining valid wear time for use in future interventions and analyses. Sixteen African American women (mean age = 62.1 years and mean body mass index = 35.5 kg/m2) wore the Fitbit Charge 2 for 20 days. Method 1 defined a valid day as ≥10-hr wear time with heart rate data. Method 2 removed minutes without heart rate data, minutes with heart rate  ≤ mean − 2 SDs below mean and ≤2 steps, and nighttime. Linear regression modeled steps per day per week change. Using Method 1 (n = 292 person-days), participants had 20.5 (SD = 4.3) hr wear time per day compared with 16.3 (SD = 2.2) hr using Method 2 (n = 282) (p < .0001). With Method 1, participants took 7,436 (SD = 3,543) steps per day compared with 7,298 (SD = 3,501) steps per day with Method 2 (p = .64). The proposed algorithm represents a novel approach to standardizing data generated by physical activity trackers. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of physical activity data sets.

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David Cassilo and Danielle Sarver Coombs

The Pakistan Super League launched in 2016 with massive enthusiasm in its “cricket-mad” nation. However, safety concerns stemming from a 2009 terrorist attack in Lahore, Pakistan, meant all matches were played in the United Arab Emirates until the tournament’s final game in 2017—the ultimate test in seeing if top-level cricket could return to Pakistan. In this study, the authors examine framing of the creation in 2013 and first 2 years of the Pakistan Super League from news sources in Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. This study offers an opportunity to understand how Middle Eastern sport and the sport’s connection to national identity are framed in the media across multiple countries during a pivotal time for cricket in Pakistan.

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Rasmus T. Larsen, Christoffer B. Korfitsen, Carsten B. Juhl, Henning Boje Andersen, Henning Langberg and Jan Christensen

Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and the Nordic Physical Activity Questionnaire-short (NPAQ-short) when compared with objectively measured daily steps among older adults. Methods: Spearman’s ρ between IPAQ-SF and NPAQ-short and objectively measured steps using Garmin Vivofit 3 physical activity monitors. Results: A total of 54 participants were included. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ moderate physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time showed little or no correlation with daily steps. The NPAQ-short subscales’ vigorous PA, moderate PA, and MVPA showed little or no correlation. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ vigorous PA and walking showed fair correlation. Only the IPAQ-SF metabolic equivalent of task minutes showed moderate to good correlation with daily steps. The IPAQ-SF categories and NPAQ-short categorization of World Health Organization compliance were significantly different, but the magnitudes were small and distributions indicated problems with the categorization. Conclusion: The concurrent validity is low, as the scores did not reflect objectively measured daily steps.

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Richard J. Paulsen

This paper uses Major League Baseball data to examine the relationship between years remaining on player contracts and player performance. There is a potential for moral hazard to arise in this principal–agent relationship as the player may choose a less than optimal level of effort from the perspective of team management when the player has many guaranteed years remaining. A player fixed-effects estimation strategy, which finds a significant negative relationship between years remaining and performance, is employed. The primary contribution of this work is to show that this relationship is due to shirking. Alternative explanations for this relationship, such as teams signing improving players to multiyear contracts or players facing an adjustment process when joining a new team, are addressed. Additional evidence which is consistent with shirking behavior shows that shirking occurs on offense, not defense, and for position players, not pitchers.