Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations between physical activity (PA) and sports participation on academic performance variables within a representative sample of children and adolescents. Methods: Data were analyzed from the combined 2017–2018 National Survey of Children’s Health. Household addresses were randomly selected within each US state. One household parent answered health and wellness questions pertaining to one randomly selected household child (N = 37,392; 48.1% female; 6- to 17-y old). Weighted logistic regression models were employed to examine the independent and joint associations between child PA frequency and sports participation with academic performance variables, adjusting for child- and family-level covariates. Results: Child PA frequency independently associated with 37% to 46% lower odds and child sports participation independently associated with 53% lower odds of reported difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions (P < .001). For children who participated in sports, PA associated with 47% to 56% lower odds of ever repeating a grade level (P = .01). Conclusions: Frequency of weekly PA and sports participation independently and negatively associated with difficulty concentrating, remembering, and making decisions, whereas the negative association between PA and ever repeating a grade level differed by child sports participation status.
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Ryan D. Burns, Yang Bai and Timothy A. Brusseau
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
Relational perspectives have influenced marketing theory and practice over the past 40 years, with a volume of relationship marketing (RM) research accumulating over this time. In sport management specifically, a number of RM research articles have been published since the late 1990s. Although an influx has been seen, a review of said literature informs us that RM is a diverse field with no single best explanation, no clear domain and scope, and no universally accepted definition and that, most particularly, the literature is a melting pot of various concepts. This circumstance creates frustration and confusion among new researchers. Additionally, as strategic communication strategies rely on clear and consistent messaging, it is pivotal to holistically address the issue. Therefore, adopting an integrative literature review approach, this commentary revisits the RM scholarship to present, brings attention to the complex nature of the RM literature, and identifies a point of departure for researchers attempting to find a fitting “home” for their research.
Noora J. Ronkainen, Tatiana V. Ryba and Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson
Sport provides many youth participants with a central life project, and yet very few eventually fulfill their athletic dreams, which may lead them to disengage from sport entirely. Many studies have explored the processes of athletic retirement, but little is known about how youth athletes actually reconstruct their relationship with sport and embodiment postretirement. The authors explored these issues in the story of “Pilvi,” a Finnish alpine skier who disengaged from sport in her late adolescence. Employing an existential-phenomenological approach, they conducted six low-structured interviews with Pilvi, combined with visual methods, and identified key themes relating to the body, space, culture, and time. Their findings highlight the difficulty of building a new relationship with sport and the often restrictive cultural horizons of sport and exercise culture that limit the “possible selves.” The authors discuss the significant implications for applied practitioners helping youth athletes and effectively supporting them in leaving their sport.
Kathryn I. Clark, Thomas J. Templin and Taylor J. Lundberg
The purpose of this paper was to provide insight into the development of an engaging, interactive, and successful class in scientific writing in the Movement Science program in the School of Kinesiology at the University of Michigan. This class is grounded in learning the art and science of scientific argumentation. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the evolution of the class over the past decade and present elements of the class that have proven successful in the education of Movement Science students. The paper concludes with the recommendation that the American Kinesiology Association include a writing course such as the one described here in its recommendations for the undergraduate core curriculum in relation to those learning objectives tied to research proficiency.
Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore
Contemporary sport culture is characterized as highly masculinized, where female athletes are continually marginalized in traditional media. Despite evidence suggesting that media representation of athletes has a meaningful impact on social outcomes and participation rates of women and girls, little is known about gendered representations of athletes on social media and in the context of mega-sporting events. This paper examines the gendered representations of athletes on Twitter during the 2018 Commonwealth Games using framing theory. A total of 133,338 tweets were analyzed using sentiment and word-frequency analyses. Results indicate gender differences concerning athlete representation on Twitter, albeit marginal. In particular, the findings reveal that seemingly neutral words (e.g., “dedicated,” “talented,” and “hard working”) could carry gendered connotations. Recommendations are provided to guide stakeholders to advance a more inclusive sport culture through the strategic use of social media during mega-sporting events.
Dans le schème d’une histoire globale, cet article propose d’étudier la vie et la carrière sportive du marathonien Abebe Bikila au regard des transformations socio-culturelles de la décennie soixante. Pour ce faire, l’étude emprunte à un vaste panel de sources secondaires, à la presse d’époque, ainsi qu’aux archives du Comité international olympique. Elle s’articule autour de trois échelles d’analyse: l’individu et son réseau; les nations et leurs identités; l’Olympisme et la mondialisation. L’Ethiopien apparaît alors comme le symbole d’un nouvel ordre olympique, porté par la densification des échanges/transferts culturels, l’affirmation d’identités nationales renouvelées et l’internationalisation du CIO. À ce titre, l’histoire d’Abebe Bikila – athlète et témoin de son temps – est aussi celle d’une globalisation culturelle accélérée à l’aube du Second XXe siècle.
Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Élise Labonté-Lemoyne, Sylvain Sénécal, Pierre-Majorique Léger and Marie-Eve Mathieu
Background: Sedentariness has been shown to increase energy intake and is associated with increased obesity prevalence. Active workstations are used to implement physical activity interventions in workplaces, but it is unclear if they can lead to reductions in body weight. This study aims to observe the acute impact of a standing desk on energy intake and appetite sensations. Methods: Participants came to the laboratory, where they were randomly assigned to a seated or a standing desk. They completed a work session (∼75 min) during which they performed cognitive tasks and reported their levels of stress. Following this, they had a 15-minute break during which buffet-type snacks were served. Subjects were asked to rate their appetite sensations on visual analog scales. Results: Thirty-six normal-weight men and women aged 24.3 (4.3) years participated in this study. Energy intake from snacks was similar (P = .472) between participants who sat (427.8 [286.9] kcal) and the ones who stood (461.2 [272.8] kcal) during the work session. There was no difference in satiety quotients around the snack and no significant interaction time × condition for appetite sensations. Conclusion: The use of a standing desk for 75 minutes did not increase food consumption following a meal.
Samuel Ryan, Thomas Kempton and Aaron J. Coutts
Purpose: To apply data reduction methods to athlete-monitoring measures to address the issue of data overload for practitioners of professional Australian football teams. Methods: Data were collected from 45 professional Australian footballers from 1 club during the 2018 Australian Football League season. External load was measured in training and matches by 10-Hz OptimEye S5 and ClearSky T6 GPS units. Internal load was measured via the session rate of perceived exertion method. Perceptual wellness was measured via questionnaires completed before training sessions with players providing a rating (1–5 Likert scale) of muscle soreness, sleep quality, fatigue, stress, and motivation. Percentage of maximum speed was calculated relative to individual maximum velocity recorded during preseason testing. Derivative external training load measures (total daily, weekly, and monthly) were calculated. Principal-component analyses (PCAs) were conducted for Daily and Chronic measures, and components were identified via scree plot inspection (eigenvalue > 1). Components underwent orthogonal rotation with a factor loading redundancy threshold of 0.70. Results: The Daily PCA identified components representing external load, perceived wellness, and internal load. The Chronic PCA identified components representing 28-d speed exposure, 28-d external load, 7-d external load, and 28-d internal load. Perceived soreness did not meet the redundancy threshold. Conclusions: Monitoring player exposure to maximum speed is more appropriate over chronic than short time frames to capture variations in between-matches training-cycle duration. Perceived soreness represents a distinct element of a player’s perception of wellness. Summed-variable and single-variable approaches are novel methods of data reduction following PCA of athlete monitoring data.