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Angelica E. Lang, Soo Y. Kim, Stephan Milosavljevic and Clark R. Dickerson

Breast cancer survivors have known scapular kinematic alterations that may be related to the development of secondary morbidities. A measure of muscle activation would help understand the mechanisms behind potential harmful kinematics. The purpose of this study was to define muscle force strategies in breast cancer survivors. Shoulder muscle forces during 6 functional tasks were predicted for 25 breast cancer survivors (divided by impingement pain) and 25 controls using a modified Shoulder Loading Analysis Module. Maximum forces for each muscle were calculated, and 1-way analysis of variance (P < .05) was used to identify group differences. The differences between maximum predicted forces and maximum electromyography were compared with repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05) to evaluate the success of the model predictions. Average differences between force predictions and electromyography ranged from 7.3% to 31.6% but were within the range of previously accepted differences. Impingement related pain in breast cancer survivors is associated with increased force of select shoulder muscles. Both pectoralis major heads, upper trapezius, and supraspinatus peak forces were higher in the pain group across all tasks. These force prediction differences are also associated with potentially harmful kinematic strategies, providing a direction for possible rehabilitation strategies.

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Justin A. Haegele, Chunxiao Li and Wesley J. Wilson

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal/intrapersonal mindfulness, contact anxiety, and attitudes toward students with visual impairments among certified adapted physical educators. Participants included 115 certified adapted physical educators who completed a 31-item online survey, composed of a 10-item demographic questionnaire, a 14-item mindfulness in teaching scale, a four-item intergroup anxiety scale, and a three-item attitude scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness was a negative predictor of contact anxiety (β = −0.26, p = .007) and contact anxiety negatively predicted attitudes (β = −0.22, p = .02). A mediation analysis revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through contact anxiety, b = 0.09, SE = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [0.006, 0.22]. Collectively, both intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness appear to be responsible for the formation of attitudes, but with different underlying processes involved.

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David A. White, Erik A. Willis, Chaitanya Panchangam, Kelli M. Teson, Jessica S. Watson, Brian F. Birnbaum, Girish Shirali and Anitha Parthiban

Purpose: To quantify the differences in daily physical activity (PA) patterns, intensity-specific volumes, and PA bouts in youth with and without heart disease (HD). Methods: Seven-day PA was measured on children/adolescents with HD (n = 34; median age 12.4 y; 61.8% male; 70.6% single ventricle, 17.7% heart failure, and 11.8% pulmonary hypertension) and controls without HD (n = 22; median age 12.3 y; 59.1% male). Mean counts per minute were classified as sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and bouts of MVPA were calculated. PA was calculated separately for each hour of wear time from 8:00 to 22:00. Multilevel linear mixed modeling compared the outcomes, stratifying by group, time of day, and day part (presented as median percentage of valid wear time [interquartile range]). Results: Compared with the controls, the HD group had more light PA (33.9% [15%] vs 29.6% [9.5%]), less MVPA (1.7% [2.5%] vs 3.2% [3.3%]), and more sporadic bouts (97.4% [5.7%] vs 89.9% [9.2%]), but fewer short (2.0% [3.9%] vs 7.1% [5.7%]) and medium-to-long bouts (0.0% [1.9%] vs 1.6% [4.6%]) of MVPA. The HD group was less active in the late afternoon, between 15:00 and 17:00 (P < .03). There were no differences between groups in sedentary time. Conclusion: Children/adolescents with HD exhibit differences in intensity-specific volumes, PA bouts, and daily PA patterns compared with controls.

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Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit

Background: To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and inhibition in boys and girls with motor impairments compared with children with typical development. Methods: The participants were 58 (26 motor impairments and 32 typical development) children aged 7–12 years who met the inclusion criteria. PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. The time spent in PA of different intensity levels (light, moderate, and vigorous) were analyzed for weekdays and weekends. Using a visuospatial attention paradigm, inhibition was evaluated by the difference in reaction time between invalid and valid cue conditions. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the associations of inhibition with PA and motor ability by sex. Results: Boys and children with typical development had shorter reaction times in inhibition than girls (P < .001) and children with motor impairments (P < .05), respectively. Motor ability (b = 189.98) and vigorous PA on weekdays (b = −43.18) were significant predictors of inhibition in girls only. Conclusions: The results indicate a positive relationship between vigorous PA (on weekdays) and inhibition in children (girls), moderated by sex and motor ability. Effective interventions that promote vigorous PA for children both in and out of school should be designed to foster their executive function development.

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Irineu Loturco, Michael R. McGuigan, Valter P. Reis, Sileno Santos, Javier Yanci, Lucas A. Pereira and Ciro Winckler

This study aimed to investigate the association between the optimum power load in the bench press (BP), shoulder press (SP), and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises and acceleration (ACC) and speed performances in 11 National Team wheelchair basketball (WB) players with similar levels of disability. All athletes were previously familiarized with the testing procedures that were performed on the same day during the competitive period of the season. First, athletes performed a wheelchair 20-m sprint assessment and, subsequently, a maximum power load test to determine the mean propulsive power (MPP) in the BP, SP, and PBP. A Pearson product–moment correlation was used to examine the relationships between sprint velocity (VEL), ACC, and the MPP in the three exercises. The significance level was set as p < .05. Large to very large significant associations were observed between VEL and ACC and the MPP in the BP, SP, and PBP exercises (r varying from .60 to .77; p < .05). The results reveal that WB players who produce more power in these three exercises are also able to accelerate faster and achieve higher speeds over short distances. Given the key importance of high and successive ACCs during wheelchair game-related maneuvers, it is recommended that coaches frequently assess the optimum power load in BP, SP, and PBP in WB players, even during their regular training sessions.

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Athanasios Kabasakalis, Stefanos Nikolaidis, George Tsalis and Vassilis Mougios

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effects of 2 sprint interval training (SIT) sets of different distances on biochemical markers indicative of metabolism, stress, and antioxidant capacity in competitive swimmers and, to investigate the potential influence of gender on these markers. Methods: Twenty-four adolescent, well-trained swimmers (12 men and 12 women) participated in the study. In a random and counterbalanced order, the swimmers completed 2 SIT sets (8 × 50 m and 8 × 25 m) in freestyle with maximal intensity on different days. Work-to-rest ratio was 1:1 in both sets. Blood samples were drawn preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 1 hour postexercise to evaluate the effects of the SIT sets on a number of biochemical parameters. Results: Swimming speed was higher at 8 × 25 m. The 2 SIT sets induced significant increases in lactate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and uric acid (P ≤ .001). No differences in these parameters were found between sets, except for irisin (higher in 8 × 50 m; P = .02). Male swimmers were faster and had higher lactate and uric acid concentrations, as well as lower reduced glutathione concentration, than female swimmers (P < .01). Conclusions: The 2 swimming SIT sets induced increases in most of the biochemical markers studied. The 2-fold difference between sets in distance did not differentiate the effects of sprint interval exercise on most biochemical parameters. Thus, low-volume SIT sets seem to be effective stimuli for competitive swimmers.

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Annie C. Jeffries, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Shaun J. McLaren, Alan McCall and Franco M. Impellizzeri

Background: Athlete-reported outcome measures (AROMs) are frequently used in research and practice but no studies have examined their psychometric properties. Objectives: Part 1—identify the most commonly used AROMs in sport for monitoring training responses; part 2—assess risk of bias, measurement properties, and level of evidence, based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods: Methodological quality of the studies, quality of measurement properties, and level of evidence were determined using the COSMIN checklist and criteria. Results: Part 1—from 9446 articles screened for title and abstract, 310 out of 334 full texts were included; 53.9% of the AROMs contained multiple items, while 46.1% contained single items. Part 2—from 1895 articles screened for title and abstract, 71 were selected. Most measurement properties of multiple-item AROMs were adequate, but content validity and measurement error were inadequate. With the exclusion of 2 studies examining reliability and responsiveness, no validity studies were found for single items. Conclusions: The measurement properties of multiple-item AROMs derived from psychometrics were acceptable (with the exclusion of content validity and measurement error). The single-item AROMs most frequently used in sport science have not been validated. Additionally, nonvalidated modified versions of the originally nonvalidated items are common. Until proper validation studies are completed, all conclusions based on these AROMs are questionable. Established reference methods, such as those of clinimetrics, should be used to develop and assess the validity of AROMs.

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Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen and Øyvind Sandbakk

Purpose: To investigate changes in self-reported physical fitness, performance, and side effects across the menstrual cycle (MC) phases among competitive endurance athletes and to describe their knowledge and communication with coaches about the MC. Methods: The responses of 140 participants (older than 18 y) competing in biathlon or cross-country skiing at the (inter)national level were analyzed. Data were collected via an online questionnaire addressing participants’ competitive level, training volume, MC history, physical fitness, and performance during the MC, MC-related side effects, and knowledge and communication with coaches about the MC and its effects on training and performance. Results: About 50% and 71% of participants reported improved and reduced fitness, respectively, during specific MC phases, while 42% and 49% reported improved and reduced performance, respectively. Most athletes reported their worst fitness (47%) and performance (30%) and the highest number of side effects during bleeding (P < .01; compared with all other phases). The phase following bleeding was considered the best phase for perceived fitness (24%, P < .01) and performance (18%, P < .01). Only 8% of participants reported having sufficient knowledge about the MC in relation to training, and 27% of participants communicated about it with their coach. Conclusions: A high proportion of athletes perceived distinct changes in fitness, performance, and side effects across the MC phases, with their worst perceived fitness and performance during the bleeding phase. Because most athletes indicate a lack of knowledge about the MC’s effect on training and performance and few communicate with coaches on the topic, the authors recommend that more time be devoted to educating athletes and coaches.

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Jesualdo Cuevas-Aburto, Ivan Jukic, Jorge Miguel González-Hernández, Danica Janicijevic, Paola Barboza-González, Luis Javier Chirosa-Ríos and Amador García-Ramos

Purpose: To compare the effects of 2 upper-body strength-training programs differing in set configuration on bench press 1-repetition maximum (BP1RM), bench press throw peak velocity against 30 kg (BPT30), and handball throwing velocity. Methods: Thirty-five men were randomly assigned to a traditional group (TRG; n = 12), rest redistribution group (RRG; n = 13), or control group (n = 10). The training program was conducted with the bench press exercise and lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week): TRG—6 sets × 5 repetitions with 3 minutes of interset rest; RRG—1 set × 30 repetitions with 31 seconds of interrepetition rest. The total rest period (15 min) and load intensity (75% 1RM) were the same for both experimental groups. Subjects performed all repetitions at maximal intended velocity, and the load was adjusted on a daily basis from velocity recordings. Results: A significant time × group interaction was observed for both BP1RM and BPT30 (P < .01) due to the higher values observed at posttest compared with pretest for TRG (effect size [ES] = 0.77) and RRG (ES = 0.56–0.59) but not for the control group (ES ≤ 0.08). The changes in BP1RM and BPT30 did not differ between TRG and RRG (ES = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). No significant differences in handball throwing velocity were observed between the pretest and posttest (ES = 0.16, 0.22, and 0.02 for TRG, RRG, and control group, respectively). Conclusions: Resistance-training programs based on not-to-failure traditional and rest redistribution set configurations induce similar changes in BP1RM, BPT30, and handball throwing velocity.