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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy and Christine M. Baugh

Purpose: Assess whether athletes with a prior concussion diagnosis are more likely to continue play with a possible concussion. Additionally, explore whether reasons for concussion under-reporting are different among athletes with a prior concussion when compared to other athletes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 328 collegiate athletes. Results: Athletes with a prior concussion diagnosis had significantly greater relative risk of continuing play while symptomatic of a possible concussion during their most recent season compared to athletes without prior concussion diagnosis. Significant differences exist in the reasons that athletes provided for not reporting by history of concussion. Conclusions: Findings suggest that learning may have occurred as a result of the prior diagnosis; however, this learning did not appear to result in safer reporting behavior. Additional research is necessary to clarify why athletes who have been previously diagnosed with a concussion are more likely to continue playing while experiencing concussion symptoms.

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Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope and Richard Koestner

Retirement from competitive sports significantly influences former athletes’ well-being. We propose that disengaging from the former athletic career is a crucial factor in retired athletes’ adaptation. Using the theoretical framework of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) we propose that sport motivation at the career peak and motivation for retirement are important determinants of athletes’ disengagement progress from a terminated athletic career. We also seek to examine how motivation for retirement and disengagement progress predict retired athletes’ well-being. Using a mixed-retrospective/prospective longitudinal design we followed 158 government-supported elite athletes who had recently retired from an athletic career. In two online surveys administered 1.5 years apart, retired athletes reported on motivation, disengagement, and well-being. Results suggested that SDT motivation factors are important predictors for elite athletes career disengagement and well-being in retirement. The clinical implications of these findings for athletic career transition and support programs are discussed.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

The purpose of this study was to explore the career transition experiences of elite gymnasts who became professional circus artists. Eight (inter)national level gymnasts who worked as circus artists were interviewed. Using a constructionist approach to thematic data analysis, we identified a three-phase career transition process. High levels of psychological resilience characteristics were required in the first, “realizing” phase (i.e., motivation, hard work, social support, and optimism). The second, “adapting” phase involved balancing context-specific demands which included general stress, a loss of competence, social adjustment, taking calculated risks, and physical recovery. The third, “thriving” phase involved experiences of freedom, personal development, and social connectedness. During the career transition, changes from an athletic to circus artist identity were experienced. Practitioners are encouraged to support the psychological resilience and experiences of autonomy among circus artists during their career transitions. This is expected to facilitate circus artists’ wellbeing, safety, and career longevity.

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Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France and Al Petitpas

More than 1,400 Latin American professional baseball players, age 16-21, are employed by 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) academies in the Dominican Republic. The popular press has highlighted scandals related to professional youth baseball player recruitment, selection, and exploitation in the academies, but little attention has been given to the academy experiences of youth baseball players from the perspective of the players themselves. For this research, 11 professional baseball players residing at an MLB Academy in the Dominican Republic participated in semi-structured interviews. Players described their transitions into the baseball academy system, their experiences in the academy, and their perceptions and expectations upon leaving or being released from the academy. Themes that emerged from the data included athletes’ hopes and dreams, stress, faith, and career transitions. Clinical implications of these findings for sport psychology practitioners are discussed.

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

In sport such as darts, athletes are particularly challenged by demands for concentration, skills underpinned by implicit learning, and fine motor skill control. Several techniques have been proposed to improve the implicit learning of such skills, including quiet eye training (QET) and quiet mind training (QMT). Here, the authors tested whether and to what extent QET or QMT, compared with a control condition, might improve skills among novice dart players. In total, 30 novice dart players were randomly assigned either to the QET, QMT, or a control condition. Dart playing skills were assessed four times: at the baseline, 7 days later, under stress conditions, and at the study’s end. Over time, errors reduced, but more so in the QET and QMT conditions than in the control condition. The pattern of the results indicates that, among novice dart players and compared with a control condition, both QET and QMT provide significant improvements in implicit learning.

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

The authors examined the associations between the performance of upper- and lower-extremity motor tasks across task complexity and motor symptom severity, overall disease severity, and the physical aspects of quality of life in persons with Parkinson’s disease. The performance was assessed for three lower-extremity tasks and two upper-extremity tasks of different levels of complexity. The motor symptoms and overall disease severity correlated significantly with all motor tasks with higher correlation coefficients in the complex tasks. Thus, the strength of the association between disease severity or severity of motor symptoms and motor performance is task-specific, with higher values in complex motor tasks than in simpler motor tasks. Mobility-related and activity-of-daily-living-related quality of life correlated with lower-extremity tasks of low and medium complexity and with the complex upper-extremity task, respectively; this suggests that Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 is capable of differentiating between the impact of gross and fine motor function on quality of life.

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Janina M. Prado-Rico and Marcos Duarte

The goal of this work was to investigate body weight distribution during relaxed and quiet (constrained) standing tasks. Forty-one healthy, young adults performed relaxed and quiet standing tasks, and they stood with each leg on a separate force plate. The weight distribution asymmetry across time was computed as the difference between the right and left vertical force time series. The subjects presented a small average across time asymmetry during relaxed and quiet standing. However, during relaxed standing, the subjects alternated between postures, and, as a result, they were largely asymmetrical over time (instant by instant). Two unexpected results that the authors found for the relaxed standing task were that women were more asymmetrical over time than men and that there were two preferential modes of weight distribution.

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to evaluate prefrontal cortex activation differences between older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy older adults (HOA) during the performance of a balance- and attention-demanding motor task. Ten older adults with MS and 12 HOA underwent functional near-infrared spectroscopy recording while talking, virtual beam walking, or virtual beam walking while talking on a self-paced treadmill. The MS group demonstrated smaller increases in prefrontal cortex oxygenation levels than HOA during virtual beam walking while talking than talking tasks. These findings indicate a decreased ability to allocate additional attentional resources in challenging walking conditions among MS compared with HOA. This study is the first to investigate brain activation dynamics during the performance of balance- and attention-demanding motor tasks in persons with MS.

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

In adult performers, research suggests that mental representations (MRs) mediate performance of skilled movement. During adolescence, cortical brain areas responsible for generating MRs develop rapidly along with limb size, which, together, may affect movement and movement representations. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescent MRs and free-throw shooting expertise. Using structural dimensional analysis of MRs, skilled (n = 11) and less skilled (n = 11) participants sorted free-throw submovements according to their relatedness in movement execution. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis, and invariance test to examine between-group cluster comparisons. Cluster solutions for the skilled and less skilled participants were significantly variant (λ = 0.56). This method of measuring MRs distinguished expertise-related differences in MRs in an adolescent population. Findings may influence methods in which practitioners detect motor-planning faults, track development, and provide feedback to trainees.

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Matthew J. Major, José L. Zavaleta and Steven A. Gard

Investigations have begun to connect leg prosthesis mechanical properties and user outcomes to optimize prosthesis designs for maximizing mobility. To date, parametric studies have focused on prosthetic foot properties, but not explicitly longitudinal stiffness that is uniquely modified through shock-absorbing pylons. The linear spring function of these devices might affect work performed on the body center of mass during walking. This study observed the effects of different levels of pylon stiffness on individual limb work of unilateral below-knee prosthesis users walking at customary and fast speeds. Longitudinal stiffness reductions were associated with minimal increase in prosthetic limb collision and push-off work, but inconsistent changes in sound limb work. These small and variable changes in limb work did not suggest an improvement in mechanical economy due to reductions in stiffness. Fast walking generated greater overall center of mass work demands across stiffness conditions. Results indicate limb work asymmetry as the prosthetic limb experienced on average 61% and 36% of collision and push-off work, respectively, relative to the sound limb. A series-spring model to estimate residuum and pylon stiffness effects on prosthesis energy storage suggested that minimal changes to limb work may be due to influences of the residual limb which dominate the system response.