From an international perspective, it is indispensable to shed light on the education and certification of sports coaches within different countries in order to exchange good practices and facilitate international collaboration. This article highlights the past, present and future of coach education in Flanders, Belgium. A historical overview of the main initiatives of public, private and academic partners and their shifting relationships with regard to coach education provides insight into the establishment of the current Flemish School for Coach Education, a unique cooperative association between the public government, private sports federations and academic institutes for physical education. Key elements of the Flemish coach education system are presented: mission, organisation and partnerships, framework, competence model, learning pathways/culture and quality assurance. Important future steps involve the transition from a linear framework to a context-specific and nonlinear alternative, based on long-term athlete and coach development models, rethinking coach competences for all programs and implementing a blended learner-based approach with more focus on unmediated, nonformal mediated and internal learning situations.
Hans Vangrunderbeek and Hans Ponnet
Collin C. Brooks and Jaimie M. McMullen
Purpose: This study explored one physical education teacher’s engagement in an online professional learning community and her perceptions of its impact on her own feelings of isolation. Sense of community theory was used as a lens to explore the data. Method: Using a single instrumental case study design, the participant of this study was a female physical education teacher. The data were collected through semistructured interviews, public tweets (Twitter), and informal participant communication (Voxer). The data were analyzed using categorical aggregation, and codes with similar meanings were combined to develop themes. Results: Three themes were evident across data sources that represented her perceptions of participation in an online professional learning community: (a) taking initiative, (b) different support systems, and (c) stages of social media participation. Conclusion: Social media can provide a sense of community for physical education teachers, allowing them to feel less isolated.
Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit and Louise Deldicque
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a 6-week taekwondo-specific high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in simulated normobaric hypoxia on physical fitness and performance in taekwondoists. Methods: Eighteen male and female black-belt taekwondoists trained twice a week for 6 weeks in normoxia or in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.143 O2). The HIIT was composed of specific taekwondo movements and simulated fights. Body composition analyses and a frequency speed of kick test during 10 seconds (FSKT10s) and 5 × 10 seconds (FSKTmult), countermovement jump (CMJ) test, Wingate test, and an incremental treadmill test were performed before and after training. Blood lactate concentrations were measured after the FSKTmult and Wingate tests, and a fatigue index during the tests was calculated. Results: A training effect was found for FSKT10s (+35%, P < .001), FSKTmult (+32%, P < .001), and fatigue index (−48%, P = .002). A training effect was found for CMJ height (+5%, P = .003) during the CMJ test. After training, CMJ height increased in hypoxia only (+7%, P = .005). No effect was found for the parameters measured during Wingate test. For the incremental treadmill test, a training effect was found for peak oxygen consumption (P = .002), the latter being 10% lower after than before training in normoxia only (P = .002). Conclusions: In black-belt taekwondoists, hypoxic HIIT twice a week for 6 weeks provides tiny additional gains on key performance parameters compared with normoxic HIIT. Whether the trivial effects reported here might be of physiological relevance to improve performance remains debatable and should be tested individually.
Jonathon R. Lever, Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield and Hugh H.K. Fullagar
Purpose: To investigate the effects of combined sleep hygiene recommendations and mindfulness on actigraphy-based sleep parameters, perceptual well-being, anxiety, and match outcomes during high-performance junior tennis tournaments. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 17 high-performance junior tennis players completed the baseline, control, and intervention (INT) conditions across 3 separate weeks. The baseline consisted of unassisted, habitual sleep during a regular training week, and the control was unassisted sleep during a tournament week. The players attended a sleep education workshop and completed a nightly sleep hygiene protocol during a tournament week for the INT. Analysis was performed on the weekly means and on the night prior to the first match of the tournament (T-1). Results: Significant differences were observed for increased time in bed, total sleep time, and an earlier bedtime (P < .05) across the INT week. These parameters also significantly improved on T-1 of the INT. A moderate effect size (P > .05, d > 1.00) was evident for decreased worry on T-1 of the INT. Small effect sizes were also evident for improved mood, cognitive anxiety, and sleep rating across the INT week. The match performance outcomes remained unchanged (P > .05). Conclusions: Sleep hygiene INTs increase the sleep duration of high-performance junior tennis players in tournament settings, including the night prior to the tournament’s first match. The effects on perceptual well-being and anxiety are unclear, although small trends suggest improved mood, despite no effect on generic match performance outcomes.
Aviv Emanuel, Isaac Rozen Smukas and Israel Halperin
Context: The Feeling Scale (FS) is a unique and underexplored scale in sport sciences that measures affective valence. The FS has the potential to be used in athletic environments as a monitoring and prescription tool. Purpose: To examine whether FS ratings, as measured on a repetition-by-repetition basis, can predict proximity to task failure and bar velocity across different exercises and loads. Methods: On the first day, 20 trained participants (10 females) completed 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) tests in the barbell bench and squat exercises and were introduced to the FS. In the following 3 sessions, participants completed 3 sets to task failure with either (1) 70% 1-RM bench press, (2) 70% 1-RM squat (squat-70%), or (3) 80% 1-RM squat (squat-80%). Sessions were completed in a randomized, counterbalanced order. After every completed repetition, participants verbally reported their FS ratings. Bar velocity was measured via a linear position transducer. Results: FS ratings predicted failure proximity and bar velocity in all 3 conditions (P < .001, R 2 .66–.85). Based on the analysis, which included over 2400 repetitions, a reduction of 1 unit in the FS corresponded to approaching task failure by 14%, 11%, and 11%, and to a reduction in bar velocity of 10%, 4%, and 3%, in the bench, squat-70%, and squat-80%, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate whether the FS can be used in resistance-training environments among resistance-trained participants on a repetition-by-repetition basis. The results indicate that the FS can be used to monitor and prescribe resistance training and that its benefits should be further explored.
M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen and A.C. Hackney
Purpose: To examine the potential impact of fluctuations in sex steroid hormones across the menstrual cycle (MC) on marathon running performance of recreational female athletes. Methods: A survey questionnaire was administered to recreational, nonelite runners who had completed multiple marathons within the last 18 months. Results: A total of 599 questionnaires were returned and deemed viable for review. From these, 185 survey participants were found to have complete information and eligibility to have their surveys used in the statistical analysis. A total of 106 women had their best marathon performance in the luteal phase (high sex steroid hormones) of the MC, and 79 had their best performance in the follicular phase (low sex steroid hormones) of the MC (responses were significantly different; z-score value = 1.11; P < .05). Conclusion: Recreational female runners have varying performances in the marathon across their MC phases, specifically performing better in the luteal phase of the cycle.
Mehdi Kordi, Martin Evans and Glyn Howatson
Purpose: Peak power output (PPO) is a determinant of sprint cycling performance and can be enhanced by resistance exercise that targets maximum strength. Conventional resistance training is not always suitable for elite cyclists because of chronic spinal issues; therefore, alternative methods to improve strength that concurrently reduce injury risk are welcome. In this case study, quasi-isometric cycling (QIC), a novel task-specific resistance-training method designed to improve PPO without the use of transitional resistance training, was investigated. Methods: A highly trained sprint track cyclist (10.401 s for 200 m) completed a 5-week training block followed by a second 5-week block that replaced conventional resistance training with the novel QIC training method. The replacement training method required the cyclist to maximally drive the crank of a modified cycle ergometer for 5 seconds as it passed through a ∼100° range (starting at 45° from top dead center) at a constant angular velocity. Each session consisted of 3 sets of 6 repetitions on each leg. The lab PPO was recorded in the saddle and out of the saddle. Results: Conventional training did not alter sprinting ability; however, the intervention improved the out-of-the-saddle PPO by 100 W (from 1751 to 1851 W), while the in-the-saddle PPO increased by 57 W from 1671 to 1728 W. Conclusion: QIC increased PPO in a highly trained, national-level sprint cyclist, which could be translated to improvements in performance on the track. Furthermore, QIC provides a simple, but nonetheless effective, alternative for sprint track cyclists who have compromised function to perform traditional strength training.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
Purpose: This study investigated the benefits and challenges described by physical educators who had actively used social media professionally for an average of more than 6 years. Method: The data were collected through semistructured individual and focus group interviews, with an international sample of physical educators (N = 48). The data were analyzed through an open coding process to develop themes. Results: Diverse benefits and challenges associated with social media use were identified and organized in alignment with a social ecological model. The benefits included enhanced knowledge, skills, teaching, student learning, and access to professional community. The challenges included managing the quantity of available content, the risks of context collapse, and navigating the cultures and discourse of online spaces. Discussion: A deeper understanding of the benefits and challenges of physical educators’ social media use can enable stakeholders to act in more strategic ways as they navigate the promise and the peril of social media.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
This chapter compares and contrasts the findings of the preceding empirical monograph chapters. The findings from these chapters are addressed in terms of how they illustrate the positives, negatives, and tensions that can be associated with social media use for professional development and learning. Across the various chapters, similarities in findings as well as apparent contradictions are discussed. By illuminating the potential and the perils of social media use and misuse, a pragmatic summary of the findings can inform wise use and nonuse of social media for professional development and learning by those involved in the field of physical education and sport pedagogy. Although prior literature and this monograph have begun to address some aspects of social media use in physical education and sport pedagogy, much remains to be explored. Topics, social media tools, methods, and theory that could be taken up or expanded upon in future research to advance the field are suggested.