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Chiaki Tanaka, Akira Kyan, Minoru Takakura, Tim Olds, Natasha Schranz and Shigeho Tanaka

Background: An international physical activity (PA) questionnaire is beneficial to make cross-country comparisons among children and adolescents. This study assesses the validity of the PA questions in the World Health Organization Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (WHO HBSC) survey in Japanese children and adolescents. Methods: Participants were fifth- to sixth-grade Japanese primary school students (67 students aged 10.8 [0.5] y) and first- to third-grade junior high school students (108 students aged 13.0 [0.7] y). The Japanese version of the PA questions in the WHO HBSC (WHO HBSC-J) was used. To assess the validity of the PA questions, the authors used a partial correlation adjusted for sex, age, and relative weight between the answers to the survey questions and objectively measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) by an accelerometer. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between accelerometer-measured MVPA and the number of reported days with at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA in primary school students (r = .39, P = .002) and junior high school students (r = .32, P < .001). Conclusion: The HBSC-J has moderate validity for evaluating MVPA in Japanese primary school and junior high school students.

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Cody J. O’Grady, Jordan L. Fox, Daniele Conte, Davide Ferioli, Aaron T. Scanlan and Vincent J. Dalbo

Purpose: Games-based drills are the predominant form of training adopted during basketball practice. As such, researchers have begun to quantify the physical, physiological, and perceptual demands of different games-based drill formats. However, study methodology has not been systematically reported across studies, limiting the ability to form conclusions from existing research. The authors developed this call to action to draw attention to the current standard of methodological reporting in basketball games-based drill research and establish a systematic reporting standard the authors hope will be utilized in future research. The Basketball Games-Based Drill Methodical Reporting Checklist (BGBDMRC) was developed to encourage the systematic reporting of games-based drill methodology. The authors used the BGBDMRC to evaluate the current methodological reporting standard of studies included in their review published in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, “A Systematic Review of the External and Internal Workloads Experienced During Games-Based Drills in Basketball Players” (2020), which highlighted this issue. Of the 17 studies included in their review, only 38% (±18%) of applicable checklist items were addressed across included studies, which is problematic as checklist items are essential for study replication. Conclusions: The current standard of methodological reporting in basketball games-based drill research is insufficient to allow for replication of examined drills in future research or the application of research outcomes to practice. The authors implore researchers to adopt the BGBDMRC to improve the quality and reproducibility of games-based drill research and increase the translation of research findings to practice.

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Jos J de Koning, Teun van Erp, Rob Lamberts, Stephen Cheung and Dionne Noordhof

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Maëlle Tixier, Corinne Cian, Pierre-Alain Barraud, Rafael Laboissiere and Stéphane Rousset

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the postural response to specific types of long-term memory (episodic vs. semantic) in young adults performing an unperturbed upright stance. Although a similar level of steadiness (mean distance) was observed, dual tasking induced a higher velocity, more energy in the higher frequency range (power spectral density), and less regularity (sample entropy) compared with a simple postural task. Moreover, mean velocity was always greater in the semantic than in the episodic task. The differences in postural control during dual tasking may result from the types of processes involved in the memory task. Findings suggest a spatial process sharing between posture and episodic memory.

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Jerry Öhlin, Yngve Gustafson, Håkan Littbrand, Birgitta Olofsson and Annika Toots

Improving dementia screening procedures beyond simple assessment of current cognitive performance is timely given the ongoing phenomenon of population aging. A slow or declining gait speed (GS) is a potential early indicator of cognitive decline scarcely investigated in very old people. Here, we investigated the 5-year associations of baseline GS, change in GS, and cognitive function with subsequent dementia development in people aged 85 years and older (n = 296) without dementia at baseline. Declining and a slow baseline GS were associated with higher odds of dementia development after adjusting for confounders (e.g., age, sex, and dependency in activities of daily living) and missing GS values at follow-up. The GS decline was associated with cognitive decline in participants who developed dementia. The results support the potential of GS tests to predict future cognitive decline among community- and nursing home-dwelling very old people.

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Nobuaki Moriyama, Hajime Iwasa and Seiji Yasumura

The aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived environment and physical activity among older adults in Fukushima Prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the impact of evacuation. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 65 years and older from October to November 2018. Perceived environment was assessed using a five-item questionnaire on home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, and frequency of observing others exercising. Physical activity, assessed via the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese, was segregated into levels based on the median score. Data from 249 participants (74.2 ± 6.9 years) were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis found that the unenjoyable Scenery × Residing in restoration public housing interaction (odds ratio = 3.87, 95% confidence interval = [1.20, 12.46]) was significant. The association between enjoyable scenery and physical activity varied according to whether the participants had experienced evacuation or not.

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Hannah L. Stedge and Kirk Armstrong

Clinical Scenario: Endurance sports require a great deal of physical training to perform well. Endurance training and racing stress the skeletal muscle, resulting in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Athletes attempt to aid their recovery in various ways, one of which is through compression. Dynamic compression consists of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices, such as the NormaTec Recovery System and Recovery Pump. Clinical Question: What are the effects of IPC on the reduction of EIMD in endurance athletes following prolonged exercise? Summary of Key Findings: The current literature was searched to identify the effects of IPC, and 3 studies were selected: 2 randomized controlled trials and 1 randomized cross-over study. Two studies investigated the effect of IPC on delayed onset muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase in ultramarathoners. The other looked at the impact of IPC on delayed onset muscle soreness in marathoners, ultramarathoners, triathletes, and cyclists. All studies concluded IPC was not an effective means of improving the reduction of EIMD in endurance-trained athletes. Clinical Bottom Line: While IPC may provide short-term relief of delayed onset muscle soreness, this device does not provide continued relief from EIMD. Strength of Recommendation: In accordance with the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, the grade of B is recommended based on consistent evidence from 2 high-quality randomized controlled trials and 1 randomized cross-over study.

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Emily L. Messerschmidt, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel and Srikant Vallabhajosula

Context: Though previous research has focused on examining the effects of concussion history using a dual-task paradigm, the influence of factors like symptoms (unrelated to concussion), gender, and type of sport on gait in college athletes is unknown. Objective: To examine the effect of concussion history, symptoms, gender, and type of sport (noncontact/limited contact/contact) individually on gait among college athletes. Design: Exploratory cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: In total, 98 varsity athletes (age, 18.3 [1.0] y; height, 1.79 [0.11] m; mass, 77.5 [19.2] kg; 27 with concussion history, 58 reported at least one symptom, 44 females; 8 played noncontact sports and 71 played contact sports) walked under single- and dual-task (walking while counting backward by 7) conditions. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Dual-task cost (DTC; % difference between single task and dual task) of gait speed, cadence, step length and width, percentage of swing and double-support phases, symptom score, and total symptom severity score. Independent samples t tests and 1-way analysis of variance were conducted (α value = .05). Results: Self-reported concussion history resulted in no significant differences (P > .05). Those who reported symptoms at testing time showed significantly greater DTC of step length (mean difference [MD], 2.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3% to 5.1%; P = .012), % of swing phase (MD, 1.0%; 95% CI, −0.2 to 2.1%; P = .042), and % of double-support phase (MD, 3.9%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 7.8%; P = .019). Females demonstrated significantly higher DTC of gait speed (MD, 5.3%; 95% CI, 1.3% to 9.3%; P = .005), cadence (MD, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.4% to 6.5%; P = .002), % of swing phase (MD, 1.2%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 2.3%; P = .019), and % of double-support phase (MD, 4.1%; 95% CI, 0.4% to 7.9%; P = .018). Noncontact sports athletes had significantly greater step width DTC than contact sports athletes (MD, 14.2%; 95% CI, 0.9% to 27.6%; P = .032). Conclusions: Reporting symptoms at testing time may influence gait under dual-task conditions. Additionally, female athletes showed more gait changes during a dual task. Sports medicine professionals should be aware that these variables, while unrelated to injury, may affect an athlete’s gait upon analysis.

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Damien Murphy, Quinette A. Louw, Colum Moloney, Dominique Leibbrandt and Amanda M. Clifford

Purpose: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most severe injuries in the Gaelic Athletic Association. Hop tests measure functional performance after ACL reconstruction as they replicate the key requirements for a match situation. However, research examining functional recovery of ACL-reconstructed Gaelic athletes is lacking. The objective of this study is to determine if athletes restore normal hop symmetry after ACL reconstruction and to examine if bilateral deficiencies persist in hop performance following return to sport. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate hop performance of 30 ACL-reconstructed Gaelic athletes who had returned to competition and 30 uninjured controls in a battery of hop tests including a single, 6-m, triple, and triple-crossover hop test. Results: In each test, the mean symmetry score of the ACL reconstruction group was above the cutoff for normal performance of 90% adopted by this study (98%, 99%, 97%, and 99% for the single, 6-m, triple, and triple-crossover hop, respectively). No significant differences in absolute hop scores emerged between involved and control limbs, with the exception of the single-hop test where healthy dominant limbs hopped significantly further than ACL-reconstructed dominant limbs (P = .02). No significant deficits were identified on the noninvolved side. Conclusions: The majority of ACL-reconstructed Gaelic athletes demonstrate normal levels of hop symmetry after returning to competition. Suboptimal hop performance can persist on the involved side compared with control limbs. Targeted rehabilitation may be warranted after returning to competition to restore performance to levels of healthy uninjured athletes.

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Enda Whyte, Tiarnán Ó Doinn, Miriam Downey and Siobhán O’Connor

Context: Deficits in the hip range of motion are associated with hip and groin injuries. Accurate and reliable goniometric measurements are important in identifying those at risk of injury and determining the efficacy of treatment interventions. Smartphone goniometric applications are regularly used to assess joint ranges of motion; however, there is limited knowledge on the reliability of this method in relation to the hip, particularly between clinicians with different levels of experience. Objective: To determine the intratester and intertester reliability of a smartphone clinometer application for the assessment of hip goniometric measurements in healthy volunteers by an experienced and novice clinician. Design: Reliability study. Setting: University Athletic Therapy facility. Participants: Physically active, university students. Main Outcome Measures: The study determined the intra- and intertester (experienced vs novice clinician) reliability of goniometric measurements of the hip joint (modified Thomas test and seated hip internal and external rotation) using a smartphone goniometric application. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change at a 95% confidence interval were used to assess reliability. Results: Goniometric measurements demonstrated good to excellent relative intratester reliability for the modified Thomas test (ICC = .94), external rotation (ICC = .93–.95), and internal rotation (ICC = .80–.81). Intertester reliability for expert and novice clinicians was also excellent for the modified Thomas test (ICC = .98), external rotation (ICC = .95), and internal rotation (ICC = .92). Intratester and intertester standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change at 95% confidence interval values were similar for both testers and ranged from 1.9° to 3.6° and 5° to 10.1° and from 1.1° to 2.3° and 2.9° to 6.5°, respectively. Conclusion: Smartphone-based goniometric measurements of hip range of motion have high intratester and intertester reliability for novice and expert clinicians. It may be a useful, simple, and inexpensive resource for clinicians.