Context: Given the comparable muscle hypertrophy constantly observed between blood-flow restriction exercise (BFR-RE) and conventional resistance exercise, understanding their particular rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain may help to better prescribe exercise at a low-discomfort level, thus increasing its feasibility. Design: Randomized crossover study. Objective: To compare the RPE and pain response between conventional high- (HI-RE) and low-intensity resistance exercise (LI-RE) protocols to failure with a nonmuscular failure LI-RE associated with BFR-RE. Participants: A total of 12 men (age: 20  y; body mass: 73.5  kg; height: 174  cm). Interventions: Four sets of 45° leg-press exercises in 3 different conditions: (1) BFR-RE (15 repetitions; 30% 1-repetition maximum), (2) HI-RE (80% 1-repetition maximum to muscular failure), and (3) LI-RE (30% 1-repetition maximum to muscular failure). Main Outcome Measures: RPE and pain were assessed immediately before exercise session and after the end of each of the 4 sets. Results: RPE and pain levels increased throughout the exercise sets for all RE protocols (all, Ps < .05). HI-RE and LI-RE protocols showed similar increase in RPE and pain levels during all exercise sets (P < .05); however, both protocols demonstrated higher RPE and pain response compared with BFR-RE after each of the 4 sets (all Ps < .05 between-group comparisons). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that both HI-RE and LI-RE to muscular failure resulted in similar and significant increases in RPE and pain levels, regardless of exercise intensity. In addition, nonmuscular failure BFR-RE also increased RPE and pain response, however, to a lower extent compared with either HI-RE or LI-RE.
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Manoel E. Lixandrão, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Maira Miquelini, Ieda F. Alvarez and Cleiton Augusto Libardi
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
ESPN The Magazine’s The Body Issue positions itself as an inclusive and sport-focused publication. With a focus on gender, the purpose of the current study was to examine the online thoughts and opinions that resulted from #BodyIssue on Instagram. In addition, the Instagram posting activity of ESPN (@espn) and espnW (@espnw) as it pertained to the promotion of the featured athletes and the Instagram accounts of the athletes featured in the 2016 Body Issue were explored. A text and network analysis surrounding #BodyIssue for both male and female Body Issue athletes was conducted using the Netlytic program. Manual Instagram tracking of @espn and @espnw, as well as the featured athletes’ accounts, was performed. In its entirety, this study was conducted between June 29 and July 13, 2016. Online thoughts and opinions, although differing by gender, were generally positive, with a large focus on physical form, not sexuality and/or nudity. Furthermore, a gender disparity was reported in regard to ESPN Inc.’s Instagram posting activity, with @espn choosing only to celebrate its male Body Issue athletes on Instagram and @espnw only posting about 2 of the 9 female athletes. There was a significant difference in the number of Instagram followers for the female athletes 1 wk prior to the online release of the issue (M = 105,767.78, SD = 141,193.71) and 1 wk postrelease (M = 109,742.56, SD = 142,890.11), t(8) = −4.29, p = .003. Further analyses of other Body Issue editions is needed to continue investigating this gender disparity and its potential impact on athletes, sport culture, and social attitudes.
Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton
Maintaining muscle mass and function during rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament injury is complicated by the challenge of accurately prescribing daily energy intakes aligned to energy expenditure. Accordingly, we present a 38-week case study characterizing whole body and regional rates of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy (as inferred by assessments of fat-free mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in a professional male soccer player from the English Premier League. In addition, in Week 6, we also quantified energy intake (via the remote food photographic method) and energy expenditure using the doubly labeled water method. Mean daily energy intake (CHO: 1.9–3.2, protein: 1.7–3.3, and fat: 1.4–2.7 g/kg) and energy expenditure were 2,765 ± 474 and 3,178 kcal/day, respectively. In accordance with an apparent energy deficit, total body mass decreased by 1.9 kg during Weeks 1–6 where fat-free mass loss in the injured and noninjured limb was 0.9 and 0.6 kg, respectively, yet, trunk fat-free mass increased by 0.7 kg. In Weeks 7–28, the athlete was advised to increase daily CHO intake (4–6 g/kg) to facilitate an increased daily energy intake. Throughout this period, total body mass increased by 3.6 kg (attributable to a 2.9 and 0.7 kg increase in fat free and fat mass, respectively). Our data suggest it may be advantageous to avoid excessive reductions in energy intake during the initial 6–8 weeks post anterior cruciate ligament surgery so as to limit muscle atrophy.
Jeffrey C. Cowley, Steven T. McCaw, Kelly R. Laurson and Michael R. Torry
Purpose: Children who are overweight typically do not perform motor skills as well as normal-weight peers. This study examined whether vertical jump kinetics and kinematics of children who are overweight differ from nonoverweight peers. Methods: Thirty-nine children completed maximum-effort countermovement vertical jumps. Motion capture was used to complete lower extremity kinematic and kinetic analyses. Results: The overweight group (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile; N = 11; age = 6.5 [1.6] y) jumped lower relative to their mass (0.381 cm/kg lower; P < .001) than normal-weight peers (N = 28; age = 6.4 [1.7] y). Compared with children who are normal weight, children who were overweight exhibited a shallower countermovement (knee: 12° less flexion, P = .02; hip: 10° less flexion, P = .045), lower hip torque (0.06 N·m/kg lower, P = .01) and hip work (40% less work, P = .01), and earlier peak joint angular velocities (knee: 9 ms earlier, P = .001; hip: 14 ms earlier, P = .004). Conclusion: Children who are overweight do not achieve optimal jumping mechanics and exhibit jumping characteristics of an earlier developmental stage compared with their peers. Interventions should help children who are overweight learn to execute a proper countermovement.
Robin S. Vealey, Nick Galli and Robert J. Harmison
In this commentary, we respond to Scherzer and Reel’s concerns over the Certified Mental Performance Consultant® (CMPC®) certification program requirements, particularly the certification exam. A reframing is suggested, in which the exam and recertification requirements are viewed as exciting historical milestones and an opportunity for individual professional growth as opposed to a personal inconvenience. In addition, some historical context and rationale for specific aspects of the CMPC certification program are provided, including the rationale for the CMPC credential.
Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, David Coppel and Stanley Herring
This study sought to identify factors that influence whether coaches support athletes struggling with depression and anxiety. Participants were U.S. public high school coaches who completed a written survey assessing their experiences, attitudes, and behaviors related to student-athlete mental health (n = 190 coaches, 92% response rate). Around two-thirds of coaches were concerned about mental health issues among the students they coached. They were more likely to extend help to a struggling athlete if they were aware of their school’s mental health plan and had greater confidence related to helping, including feeling confident in their ability to identify symptoms of mental health disorders. Mental health professionals, including sport psychologists who work with or consult with coaches, are well positioned to help provide coaches with the education necessary to be able to support and encourage care seeking by athletes who are struggling with anxiety or depression.
Clinical Question: Does the published literature support the use of composite FMS score to predict work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) in emergency service personnel (ESP)? Clinical Bottom Line: There is conflicting evidence of the usefulness of composite FMS score to predict WMSD in emergency service personnel.
Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart
Ultrasound imaging has been used to assess muscle function of deeper muscles and to compare individuals with and without low back pain. These measures may be influenced by numerous factors requiring normalization for these comparisons. The purpose of this study was to assess anthropometric normalization variables with muscle thickness of the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus across multiple ultrasound testing positions. Numerous anthropometric variables were correlated with muscle thickness. Mass, body mass index, and height times mass show the best promise for normalization, but were not consistent for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Normalization strategies should be considered when comparing between groups.