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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

The purpose of this study was to predict Paralympian swimmers’ happiness as a result of winning 2016 Paralympic medals. Understanding potential antecedents of athletes’ happiness has theoretical and practical value. Medal winners (N = 138) had their facial expressions rated for happiness at the race finish. Three predictors were examined: finish place (i.e., first, second, or third), swimmers’ expectations for race place, and race time. A multiple-regression analysis predicting happiness was significant, F(3, 98) = 3.66, p < .015, accounting for 10% of the variance. Significant beta weights for race place (β = −0.551) and finishing higher than their 2015 world ranking (β = 0.551) indicated that higher-finishing swimmers were happier than lower-finishing swimmers, and swimmers who finished better than their 2015 ranking were happier than swimmers who finished lower than their ranking. The authors also found partial support for the counterfactual-thinking hypothesis for male swimmers and evidence of gender and country differences in happiness.

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Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy

The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which children and adolescents with and without visual impairments (VIs) met national physical activity, screen-time, and sleep guidelines. This observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health focused on children (age 6–12 yr) and adolescents (age 13–17 yr) with and without VIs. The sample included 241 (weighted n = 472,127) and 17,610 (weighted n = 28,249,833) children, and 255 (weighted n = 505,401) and 17,417 (weighted n = 20,071,557) adolescents with and without VIs, respectively. Chi-square statistics were computed to examine the degree to which participants with and without VIs met health-behavior guidelines. Children (p = .02) with VIs were less likely to meet screen-time guidelines, but adolescents with VIs were not (p = .87). VI status was not associated with the likelihood of meeting physical activity or sleep guidelines (p < .05). Low numbers of children and adolescents with and without VIs meeting health-behavior guidelines warrant targeted interventions aimed at enhancing engagement.

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Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier

The aim of this case study was to describe the distinct approaches used by physical education (PE) teachers to accommodate students with disabilities in New York elementary school PE classes. The participants included 1 adapted PE specialist, 5 PE teachers, and 5 elementary school students with various impairments. Through thematic analysis, observations and interviews revealed 3 main approaches: (a) normalized instruction—traditional curriculum with no differentiation in the program; (b) differentiated instruction—adaptations tailored specifically to the needs of each student with disability; and (c) universally designed instruction based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and accessibility to all students. Differentiated instruction, entailing modifications in the program and pedagogical accommodations, was the most prevalent approach at the research site, but lessons based on UDL principles were also observed. In association, the 2 approaches (differentiated instruction and UDL) represented significant resources to accommodate students with disabilities in PE.

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann and Karim Chamari

Purposes: To determine actions during bouts that generate serious enough injury to stop the bout; verifying the injury incidence, types, and prevalence of doctor stoppages (doc-stoppage); and identify potential risk factors by analyzing technical-tactical profiles for injury in sanctioned mixed martial arts bouts taking place over a 12-y period. Methods: This research analyzed 440 paired mixed martial arts matches separated by doc-stoppage (n = 220) and no doc-stoppage (n = 220) from 2002 to 2014. Technical knockouts for doc-stoppage were diagnosed and managed by attending ringside doctors, and the time–motion variables were categorized into total combat time separated by low- or high-intensity activities per round, stand-up, or groundwork actions, P ≤ .05. Results: The main cause of injuries in doc-stoppage situations was due to facial injuries (>90%), with 87.1% occurring after striking actions during the second round. Lacerations were the leading type of injury, which occurred with 80% frequency. The results showed differences between doc-stoppage and no doc-stoppage for standing combat with low-intensity actions (130.6 [8.5] s vs 83.3 [6.9] s for first round; 115.7 [10.5] s vs 100.1 [9.6] s for second round, and 121.5 [19.5] s vs 106.3 [11.7] s for third round) and total strike attempts (34.5, 23.0–51.8 vs 25.0, 12.0–40.8); in standing combat, head strike attempts (21, 10–33 vs 11, 4–21) and body strikes (2.5, 1.0–5.8 vs 1.0–2), and in groundwork combat, head strikes landed (0.0–3.0 vs 0.0–5.0). Conclusions: This research showed higher values of strike attempts with 2 main orientations, namely the head (on the ground and in stand-up actions) and body (in stand-up actions), and may provide important information regarding the technical knockout and when it can be called by officials supervising mixed martial arts bouts.

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Matt R. Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Scott R. Brown, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pierre Samozino

The assessment of horizontal force during overground sprinting is increasingly prevalent in practice and research, stemming from advances in technology and access to simplified yet valid field methods. As researchers search out optimal means of targeting the development of horizontal force, there is considerable interest in the effectiveness of external resistance. Increasing attention in research provides more information surrounding the biomechanics of sprinting in general and insight into the potential methods of developing determinant capacities. However, there is a general lack of consensus on the assessment and computation of horizontal force under resistance, which has resulted in a confusing narrative surrounding the practical applicability of loading parameters for performance enhancement. As such, the aim of this commentary was twofold: to provide a clear narrative of the assessment and computation of horizontal force in resisted sprinting and to clarify and discuss the impact of methodological approaches to subsequent training implementation. Horizontal force computation during resisted sleds, a common sprint-training apparatus in the field, is used as a test case to illustrate the risks associated with substandard methodological practices and improperly accounting for the effects of friction. A practical and operational synthesis is provided to help guide researchers and practitioners in selecting appropriate resistance methods. Finally, an outline of future challenges is presented to aid the development of these approaches.

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

Purpose: To better understand the energy and carbohydrate (CHO) requirements of a professional goalkeeper (GK) in elite soccer, the authors quantified physical loading, energy expenditure (EE), and energy intake (EI) during a 2-games-per-week in-season microcycle. Methods: Daily training and match loads were assessed in a professional GK (age 26 y, height 191 cm, body mass 85.6 kg) from the English Premier League using global positioning systems (GPS) and ProZone®, respectively. Assessments of EE (using the doubly labeled water method) and EI (using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-h recalls) were also completed. Results: Physical loading was greater on match days than training days as inferred from total distance (4574 [432] vs 1959 [500] m), average speed (48 [5] vs 40 [4] m/min), and distance completed when jogging (993 [194] vs 645 [81] m) and running (138 [16] vs 21 [20] m). Average daily energy and macronutrient intake appear reflective of a self-selected “low-CHO” diet (energy 3160 [381] kcal, CHO 2.6 [0.6], protein 2.4 [0.4], fat 1.9 [0.3] g/kg body mass). Mean daily EE was 2894 kcal. Conclusions: The average daily EE of this professional GK was approximately 600 kcal/d lower than that previously reported in outfield players from the same team. Such data suggest that the nutritional requirements of a GK should be carefully considered depending on the required daily and weekly loading patterns.

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

Purpose: Inconsistent results among studies examining the effects of caffeine on exercise performance are potentially due to interindividual variability in biological responses to caffeine ingestion. The aims, therefore, of the present study were to identify high and low caffeine responders and compare the influence of caffeine on exercise performance and biological responses between groups during a simulated soccer-game protocol on treadmill. Methods: Well-trained soccer players were distinguished as high (n = 11) and low (n = 9) caffeine responders based on resting blood pressure, plasma glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid, and epinephrine responses to caffeine. Participants underwent 2 simulated soccer-game protocols on a treadmill after caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo ingestion. Exercise performance and several biological responses were evaluated. Results: Exercise performance did not differ between the high and low responders to caffeine (P > .05). However, time to fatigue (high, caffeine: 797 [201] s vs placebo: 487 [258] s; low, caffeine: 625 [357] s vs placebo 447 [198] s) and countermovement jump (high, caffeine: 42.1 [5.5] cm vs placebo: 40.5 [5.7] cm; low, caffeine: 41.0 [3.8] cm vs placebo: 38.8 [4.6] cm) improved with caffeine relative to placebo (P < .001). Rating of perceived exertion was lower (P < .001) in high (13.4 [2.3]) than in low responders (14.3 [2.4]) with caffeine ingestion. Conclusions: Caffeine improved aerobic endurance and neuromuscular performance in well-trained soccer players regardless of their responsiveness to caffeine at rest. Since no changes in substrate utilization were found with caffeine supplementation, performance improvements could be attributed to positive effects on the central nervous system and/or neuromuscular function, although the precise mechanism remains unclear.

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Terilyn C. Shigeno, E. Earlynn Lauer, Leslee A. Fisher, Emily J. Johnson and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

Though commonly emphasized by parents, coaches, and youth sport organizations, relatively little research exists with regard to morality in youth sport. In this Insights paper, we utilize Shields and Bredemeier’s 12-component model of moral action to help coaches become aware of how sport contextual influences, personal competencies, and ego-processing variables influence the moral behavior of their athletes. With insight from conversations with youth sport coaches, in addition to empirical and professional practice evidence, we provide coaches with three practical strategies they can use to: (a) consider how morality fits into their coaching philosophy, (b) create moral group norms within their teams, and (c) integrate moral decision-making into their practice plans.

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Shona L. Halson, Alan G. Hahn and Aaron J. Coutts