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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Background: This study reported compliance with 24-hour physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines, and associations with adiposity in the first 2 years of life. Methods: Participants (N = 119) were recruited from Soweto, South Africa. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was measured by ultrasound. Participation in 2 movement behaviors (physical activity and sedentary time) was reported by mothers. Differences in adiposity between those meeting each individual guideline, as well as the combination of both movement guidelines, compared with those not meeting the guidelines were assessed. Results: Only 5% of infants met the sedentary guidelines; however, 58% met the physical activity guidelines. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly higher in those meeting the physical activity guideline (0.50 [0.01] vs 0.47 [0.01] cm, P = .03) compared with those not meeting the guideline. Meeting the screen time component of the sedentary guideline was associated with higher visceral adipose tissue (β = 0.96, P < .01), while meeting one guideline compared with meeting none was associated with higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (β = 0.05, P = .01). Conclusions: Most infants and toddlers from this low- to middle-income setting were not meeting sedentary behavior guidelines. Both behaviors were associated with abdominal adiposity, but not with body mass index z score; implying these movement behaviors may impact abdominal fat deposition rather than body size.

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Yuri Alberto Freire, Geovani de Araújo Dantas de Macêdo, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Ágnes Denise de Lima Bezerra, Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Kevin F. Boreskie, Todd A. Duhamel and Eduardo Caldas Costa

Background: This study analyzed the effect of walking breaks or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (LV-HIIE) on markers of metabolic syndrome relative to a day of prolonged sitting. Methods: Twenty-five adults with excess body fat participated in this crossover trial: (1) 10-hour sitting day (SIT), (2) LV-HIIE followed by a sitting day (EX+SIT), and (3) sitting day with 5-minute walking breaks for every 20 minutes (SIT+WB). Glucose and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and 1 hour after 4 meals and 2 hours after lunch. Triglycerides were measured at baseline, 2, and 3.5 hours after lunch. Generalized mixed models were used to identify differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of BP and incremental AUC (iAUC) of glucose and triglycerides among the sessions. Results: iAUC-glucose was lower in SIT+WB than SIT (β = −35.3 mg/dL·10 h; 95% confidence interval, −52.5 to −8.2). AUC-diastolic BP was lower in SIT+WB than SIT (β = −14.1 mm Hg·10 h; 95% confidence interval, −26.5 to −1.6) and EX+SIT (β = −14.5 mm Hg·10 h; 95% confidence interval, −26.9 to −2.1). There were no differences in triglycerides and systolic BP levels among the sessions. Conclusion: Adults with excess body fat present lower glucose and diastolic BP during a day with breaks in sitting time compared with a prolonged sitting day with or without an LV-HIIE session.

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

Background: Reports of physical activity (PA) measured via wrist-worn accelerometers in adolescents are limited. This study describes PA levels in adolescents at baseline of an obesity prevention and weight management trial. Methods: Adolescents (n = 930) at 8 high schools wore an accelerometer for 7 days, with average acceleration values of <50 mg, >150 mg, and >500 mg categorized as sedentary, moderate, and vigorous PA, respectively. In a 3-level mixed-effects generalized linear model, PA was regressed on sex, weight status, and day of week. Daily PA was nested within students, and students within schools, with random effects included for both. Results: Adolescents accumulated a median of 40 minutes daily of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). MVPA was significantly different for teens with obesity versus teens with normal weight (−5.4 min/d, P = .03); boys versus girls (16.3 min/d, P < .001); and Sundays versus midweek (−16.6 min/d, P < .001). Average sedentary time increased on weekends (Saturday: 19.1 min/d, P < .001; Sunday: 44.8 min, P < .001) relative to midweek but did not differ by sex or weight status. Conclusions: Interventions to increase PA in adolescents may benefit from focusing on increasing weekend PA and increasing MVPA in girls.

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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan

Background: This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based exercise intervention using the Wii Fit Plus®. Methods: A randomized, controlled trial of 24 women (age 53.6 [5.4] y) was used to assess compliance and changes in balance over 12 weeks. Balance was measured via the Berg Balance Scale and Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques-4 Scale at baseline and week 6 and week 12. Participant compliance to the intervention was captured via paper logs and the electronic record collected by the Wii Fit Plus®. Results: Participants in the intervention group were 95% compliant based on electronic records. There were no significant differences between groups for total score on either balance scale. There was a significant group × time interaction in favor of the intervention for maximum velocity y (P < .05), average velocity (P < .05), and was trending for maximum velocity x (P = .05) in the tandem step, eyes closed position. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Wii Fit Plus® is appropriate for home-based interventions in middle-aged women. Modest improvements in balance indicate that this may be an effective means to improve or maintain balance in older women. More research is needed to determine compliance and benefits to reducing fall risk in durations exceeding 12 weeks.

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Pilar Lavielle Sotomayor, Gerardo Huitron Bravo, Analí López Fernández and Juan Talavera Piña

Objective: To assess the meaning of a physical activity prescription (PAP) from the physician’s point of view and to examine current PAP-related clinical practices and stage of change, including the factors that influence them. Methods: Mixed methodology was applied to obtain valid, high-quality data. During the qualitative phase, the “free-listing” technique was used to explore the “cultural domain” of a physician’s perception of PAP, as well as the construction of culturally relevant items used during the last phase of the study. A survey was conducted to evaluate clinical practices, attitudes, and physician state of change regarding PAP. The convenience sample of 58 (qualitative phase) and 350 internists (quantitative phase) who attended the International Congress of Internal Medicine was interviewed. Results: A majority of internist reported having adequate knowledge, positive attitude, being in the maintenance phase with no barriers to prescribe physical activity (PA). Prescription was associated with physician training, their workplace, and experience. However, physicians do not satisfactorily evaluate the level of patient’s PA nor recommend an adequate level of PA, which is necessary to achieve health goals. Conclusions: Physicians had great acceptance of PAP. However, there were low levels of knowledge of current PA guidelines, although most physicians thought they had sufficient knowledge. Training seems to be an excellent way to improve PAP.

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

Background: Physical activity promotion within primary health care is in the spotlight. However, few studies have evaluated the long-term effectiveness of possible interventions. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 3 primary health care interventions in increasing leisure-time physical activity among older Brazilians. Methods: Experimental study with 142 older residents of an ongoing urban cohort in São Paulo (Brazil). Participants were randomized into 3 groups: minimal intervention group, physician-based counseling group, and individual counseling and referral for physical activity programs group (CRG). We used the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity at baseline, 4 years after baseline without any intervention, 3 months after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. Statistical analysis included repeated analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, 31% of the individuals were active, and this figure remained stable for a period of 4 years. Three months after the interventions, there was a significant increase in leisure-time physical activity for CRG compared with the minimal intervention (P < .001) and physician-based counseling (P < .02) groups, and these differences persisted after 6 months (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Conclusion: Results indicate that interventions with CRG are effective in producing sustained changes in physical activity among older Brazilians.

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Simone A. Tomaz, Alessandra Prioreschi, Estelle D. Watson, Joanne A. McVeigh, Dale E. Rae, Rachel A. Jones and Catherine E. Draper

Background: Limited research reports on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), sleep, and gross motor skills (GMS) in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to (1) describe BMI, PA, SB, sleep duration, and GMS proficiency in South African preschool children and (2) identify relationships between variables. Methods: BMI, including z scores for height, weight, and BMI were determined. Seven-day PA, SB, and sleep were measured using accelerometry. GMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (second edition). Associations were explored by comparing sleep, PA, SB, and GMS between BMI tertiles using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: Most (86%) children (n = 78, 50% boys) had a healthy BMI (15.7 [1.3] kg/m2). Children spent 560.5 (52.9) minutes per day in light- to vigorous-intensity PA and 90.9 (30.0) minutes per day in moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA; most (83%) met the current PA guideline. Nocturnal sleep duration was low (9.28 [0.80] h/d). Although daytime naps increased 24-hour sleep duration (10.17 [0.71] h/d), 38% were classified as short sleepers. Around half (54.9%) of participants complied with both PA and sleep guidelines. No associations between variables were found. Conclusion: Despite being lean, sufficiently active, and having adequate GMS, many children were short sleepers, highlighting a possible area for intervention.

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James E. Peterman, Kalee L. Morris, Rodger Kram and William C. Byrnes

Background: In laboratory settings, cycling workstations improve cardiometabolic risk factors. Our purpose was to quantify risk factors following a cycling intervention in the workplace. Methods: Twenty-one office workers who sat at work ≥6 hours per day underwent baseline physiological measurements (resting blood pressure, blood lipid profile, maximum oxygen consumption [V˙O2max], body composition, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test). Participants were randomly assigned to a 4-week intervention only group (n = 12) or a delayed intervention group (n = 9) that involved a 4-week control condition before beginning the intervention. During the intervention, participants were instructed to use the cycling device a minimum of 15 minutes per hour, which would result in a total use of ≥2 hours per day during the workday. Following the intervention, physiological measurements were repeated. Results: Participants averaged 1.77 (0.48) hours per day of cycling during the intervention with no changes in actigraphy-monitored noncycling physical activity. Four weeks of the workplace intervention increased V˙O2max (2.07 [0.44] to 2.17 [0.44] L·min−1, P < .01); end of V˙O2max test power output (166.3 [42.2] to 176.6 [46.1] W, P < .01); and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.09 [0.17] to 1.17 [0.24] mmol·L−1, P = .04). Conclusions: A stationary cycling device incorporated into a sedentary workplace for 4 weeks improves some cardiometabolic risk factors with no compensatory decrease in noncycling physical activity.

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens and Fred Paas

Background: Although active workstations, such as desk bikes, have proven to be beneficial for health, there is limited information regarding their effects on children’s acute cognitive performance during self-paced exercise. Methods: This study used a within-subjects, fully counterbalanced design with a sample of 38 preadolescent children (mean age = 12.50 y, SD = 0.62; 43% male), who performed cognitive tests while being seated or while cycling for 45 minutes with a 7-day interval. Effects of using a desk bike were evaluated on cognitive control: verbal and visuospatial working memory capacities were tested, and inhibition was assessed using a modified flanker task. In addition, subjective task experience was explored using self-report measures. Results: Cognitive control performance was not degraded but also not improved with the short-term use of desk bikes. Because of the null effects, there is no direction and magnitude of the outcomes to discuss. Conclusions: These findings suggest that schools can successfully implement desk bikes to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time among children without compromising cognitive control processes necessary for academic achievement.

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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

Sport socialization research has revealed that a community is one of the most influential socializing agents. However, little is known about which aspects of a community promote sport socialization and how it occurs. In the current research, we identified and conceptualized two key factors characterizing sports teams’ fan communities, relative size and entitativity, and discussed how these factors influence sport socialization and its outcomes. First, we developed the model of community influence on sport socialization to depict the effects of relative size and entitativity on people’s perceptions and behaviors at the initial stage of their sport socialization. Second, we proposed the model of community influence on the outcomes of sport socialization, which explains how relative size and entitativity contribute to the outcomes of sport socialization.