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Bruno de Souza Moreira, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Luciana de Souza Braga, Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Juliana Lustosa Torres, Maria Fernanda Furtado Lima-Costa and Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

The study goal was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and walking in urban older adults in Brazil. A cross-sectional study including 4,027 older adults from the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) was performed. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood characteristics were questions about physical disorder, noise pollution, safety, violence, social cohesion, services, concerns with community mobility, and pleasantness. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Concern about taking the bus, subway, or train was inversely associated with walking for men. Violence (victim of theft, robbery, or had home broken into) and social cohesion (trust in neighbors) were positively and inversely associated with walking for women, respectively. A significant interaction term between social cohesion and number of chronic diseases was observed for women. These findings demonstrate the need for sex-specific interventions and policies to increase the walking levels among older Brazilian adults.

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

This research examines physical activity (PA) parameters among urban-living middle-aged and older Japanese during the Tokyo Olympic build-up period. Population sampling was employed, and an online survey was administered with 4,000 adults across Japan’s five largest cities. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form constituted the main outcome variable, with auxiliary measures of Olympic interest and engagement, readiness for PA behavior change, perceived environmental barriers, and demographic information. Despite interest in the Olympics (>60% moderate–high interest), planned engagement with the event was low (>70% planned passive engagement). Higher levels of interest and planned engagement were both significantly correlated with greater self-reported PA participation (p < .001). Across the sample, the PA levels were in the low–moderate range (990 metabolic equivalent of task-min/week), with significant variations observed by the age-cohort and geographic area (p < .001). Age-cohort and geographic variations were also identified with regard to readiness for PA behavior change and perceived environmental barriers to activity (p < .001). Older age (65 years and above) and host city (Tokyo) residence emerged as correlates of higher levels of PA, greater readiness for behavior change, and fewer reported barriers to participation. These findings have implications for Olympic legacy management and successful transitions from middle age to later life in Japan.

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Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the psychological factors that might predict the sedentary behavior of 654 older adults from the South Region of Brazil. The participants were evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; Mini-Mental State Exam; Geriatric Anxiety Scale; and the scales Geriatric Depression, Purpose in Life, Perceived Stress, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Life. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis (p < .05). No significant (p > .05) correlation was found between the sedentary behavior variables with self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis revealed that psychological variables explained 6% of the variance of sitting time during the week (R 2 = .06; F = 11.546; p < .01). Depression showed a positive prediction (β = −0.10; p = .040), while life satisfaction (β = −0.16; p = .001) and purpose in life (β = −0.10; p = .026) showed negative prediction. Psychological variables predicted only 3% of the variance of sitting time during the weekend (R 2 = .03; F = 5.629; p < .01), showing that life satisfaction had significant (p = .007) and negative (β = −0.13) association. Life satisfaction and purpose in life can be considered protector factors to sedentary behavior, while depression is a potentiating factor.

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Henk Erik Meier, Jörg Hagenah and Malte Jetzke

As Hutchins and Rowe have emphasized, digital plenitude will fundamentally affect sports broadcasting. In particular, niche sports will be confronted with a more difficult media environment in which the chances of being telecast may increase, while the chances of finding an audience are likely to decrease. Therefore, niche sports face the need to further submit to a media logic. The current research is a case study involving an analysis of the 2018 European Championships from a mediatization perspective. While the findings show how aggregation helped to revitalize audience interest, the case study reveals that the future of niche-sport broadcasting is uncertain, because the audience habits that the European Championships exploited are fading.

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José Oliveira-Santos, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, César Agostinis-Sobrinho and Jorge Mota

Background: To explore the associations between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from 6 months to 6 years of age, with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity, and sedentary time in adolescence. Methods: Retrospective school-based study with 539 adolescents (292 girls), mean age of 13.94 (1.62) years. Anthropometric data from birth up to 6 years were extracted from individual child health booklets. CRF was estimated by 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Results: Birth weight was not associated with any outcome measured in adolescence. From the age of 6 months onwards in girls, and from 3 years in boys, BMI associated inversely with CRF in adolescence. In girls, BMI (at 12 mo and at 3 y of age) associated positively with sedentary time in adolescence, but not with physical activity. In boys, positive associations between BMI at the ages of 3, 5, and 6 years old and time spent in some intensities of physical activity in adolescence were found. Conclusions: BMI during the early years was negatively associated with CRF in adolescence, in a consistent way, for both genders, but with physical activity and sedentary time the associations were scarce and inconsistent, depending on the gender.

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Sandy J. Slater, Anmol Sanghera, Yadira Herrera and Jamie F. Chriqui

Background: Head Start serves over 1 million diverse low-income preschool children and is an ideal setting for developing and implementing obesity prevention efforts, which is expected to have positive impacts on behavior as youth age. This study examined how regional- and state-level Head Start offices have supported implementation of the recently updated physical activity (PA) requirement within the teaching and learning environment Head Start Program Performance Standard (1302.31). Methods: Key informant telephone interviews were conducted with 8 regional- and 36 state-level Head Start representatives. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Data were coded and analyzed using constant comparative methods in ATLAS.ti (version 8). Audit trails were maintained, and disagreements in codes were discussed and resolved among coders. Results: The following 3 overarching themes emerged: communication, resources and technical assistance, and challenges. Results showed variation in respondent knowledge regarding the Standards. Although regional contacts provide technical assistance, state-level contacts have many information sharing strategies for programs. Implementation challenges included the need for frequent professional development opportunities given staff turnover and low PA competency, and additional PA curricula. Conclusion: Findings can help identify existing or potential strategies that could be adopted more widely or developed to assist Head Start programs incorporate PA into daily activities.

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Sophie E. Carter, Richard Draijer, Andrew Thompson, Dick H.J. Thijssen and Nicola D. Hopkins

Background: Sedentary behavior is negatively associated with cognition and mood. Adults often engage in high levels of sedentary behavior at work through sitting, which may impact productivity. Consequently, replacing sitting with standing and physical activity (PA) is recommended. However, the associations between sitting, standing, and PA at work and cognition and mood are unknown; this study, therefore, aimed to explore these relationships. Methods: A total of 75 healthy full-time workers (33 male, mean [SD]; 33.6 [10.4] y, 38 [7] work hr/wk) wore sedentary behavior (activPAL) and PA (SenseWear Pro) monitors for 7 days and recorded their work hours. The day after this monitoring period, participants completed cognitive tests (executive function, attention, and working memory) and mood questionnaires (affect, alert, content, and calm). Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations between cognition and mood and the time spent sitting, standing, and in each PA intensity during work hours, weekday leisure time, and weekends. Results: Workplace sitting, standing, or PA were not significantly associated with cognition or mood (P > .05). No significant associations were observed between these variables during weekday leisure time or weekends (P > .05). Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy workers, workplace sitting, standing, and PA are not associated with cognition or mood. Further research in this population is needed, examining the influence of workplace behaviors on cognition and mood, because this will contribute to evidence-based workplace guidelines to increase productivity.

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Nathalie Berninger, Gregory Knell, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Guy Plasqui, Rik Crutzen and Gill Ten Hoor

Objectives: To examine the bidirectional association of sleep duration with proportions of time spent in physical behaviors among Dutch adolescents. Methods: Adolescents (n = 294, 11–15 years) completed sleep diaries and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) over 1 week. With linear mixed-effects models, the authors estimated the association of sleep categories (short, optimal, and long) with the following day’s proportion in physical behaviors. With generalized linear mixed models with binomial distribution, the authors estimated the association of physical behavior proportions on sleep categories. Physical behavior proportions were operationalized using percentages of wearing time and by applying a compositional approach. All analyses were stratified by gender accounting for differing developmental stages. Results: For males (number of observed days: 345, n = 83), short as compared with optimal sleep was associated with the following day’s proportion spent in sedentary (−2.57%, p = .03, 95% confidence interval [CI] [−4.95, −0.19]) and light-intensity activities (1.96%, p = .02, 95% CI [0.27, 3.65]), which was not significant in the compositional approach models. Among females (number of observed days: 427, n = 104), long sleep was associated with the proportions spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (1.69%, p < .001, 95% CI [0.75, 2.64]) and in sedentary behavior (−3.02%, p < .01, 95% CI [−5.09, −0.96]), which was replicated by the compositional approach models. None of the associations between daytime activity and sleep were significant (number of obs.: 844, n = 204). Conclusions: Results indicate partial associations between sleep and the following day’s physical behaviors, and no associations between physical behaviors and the following night’s sleep.

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Stephanie L. Silveira, Jessica F. Baird and Robert W. Motl

Three hundred and sixty-three older adults with multiple sclerosis completed a cross-sectional study examining hierarchical correlates of physical activity using a social cognitive theory perspective within a social ecological model (i.e., built environment, social environment, and individual social cognitive theory variables). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted, wherein significant associations were noted for built environment (i.e., land-use mix diversity and aesthetics) and physical activity in Step 1 (R 2 = .09). Social and built environment were significant correlates in Step 2 (R 2 = .15). Finally in Step 3, individual social cognitive theory variables (i.e., self-efficacy and outcome expectations) were the only significant correlates of total physical activity (R 2 = .38). Results were comparable for health-promoting physical activity; however, self-efficacy was the only significant correlate in Step 3 (R 2 = .36). This study provides guidance for researchers and practitioners on relevant targets for tailoring interventions for older adults with multiple sclerosis and supports an emphasis on self-efficacy as a primary predictor of health behavior change.

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Junyeon Won, Alfonso J. Alfini, Lauren R. Weiss, James M. Hagberg and J. Carson Smith

Purpose: To examine the effects of a 10-day exercise-training cessation on semantic memory functional activation in older distance runners. Methods: Ten master runners (62.6 ± 7.0 years) with a long-term endurance-training history (29.0 ± 6.0 years) underwent a 10-day training cessation. Before and immediately after the training cessation, semantic memory activation was measured during the famous name recognition task, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The 10-day training cessation resulted in greater semantic memory activation in three brain regions, including the left inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and inferior semilunar lobule. The 10-day training cessation did not significantly alter famous name recognition task performance. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that even a relatively short period without exercise training alters the functional activation patterns of semantic memory–related neural networks. Increased semantic memory activation after training cessation may indicate reduced neural efficiency during successful memory retrieval.