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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Matthew Nagy, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

Purpose: To investigate the acute effects of intermittent activity performed at varying intensities on the perceptions of exercise-related fatigue in children. Methods: A total of 30 children completed 4 experimental conditions in random order, which consisted of 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity activity breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary breaks. The perceptions of exercise-related fatigue were determined via the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale at the beginning (0 breaks), middle (after 10 breaks), and end (after 20 breaks) of each condition. Results: The average heart rate was significantly higher with increasing exercise intensity (sedentary: 89.6 ± 1.2 beats/min, low: 114.6 ± 1.8 beats/min, moderate: 147.2 ± 1.8 beats/min, and high: 172.3 ± 1.8 beats/min, P < .0001). There was no significant main effect of condition (sedentary: −0.5 ± 0.6, low: −1.0 ± 0.7, moderate: −0.2 ± 0.5, and high: −0.6 ± 1.2; P = .86) and time (10–0 breaks: −0.7 ± 0.5 and 20–0 breaks: −0.5 ± 0.5; P = .45), nor time by condition interaction (P = .99) on change in exercise-related fatigue. Conclusions: Incorporating intermittent activity into physical activity programs may help to reduce barriers to regular exercise by minimizing perceptions of exercise-related fatigue in children.

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Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price and Eduardo B. Fontes

Impaired inhibitory control has been shown in individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). Cardiorespiratory fitness has been described as a potential factor to improve inhibitory control; however, the benefits in individuals with SUD are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness with general and drug-specific inhibitory control in individuals with SUD. Sixty-two male participants under treatment for SUD performed a general and drug-specific inhibitory control test (go/no-go) and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Cardiorespiratory fitness, age, and years of drug use were inversely associated with reaction time for both general and drug-specific inhibitory control. In addition, the regression models showed that cardiorespiratory fitness predicts general and drug-specific inhibitory control adjusted for age and time of drug use. However, cardiorespiratory fitness predicts equally both general and drug-specific inhibitory control. These findings suggest that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness could provide benefits in the inhibitory function of individuals with SUD.

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Luca Pollonini, Lauren Gulley Cox and Stacey L. Gorniak

Changes in the hemodynamic function of muscle are speculated as a causal mechanism for reduced motor capabilities with aging in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The focus of this study was to evaluate changes in muscle oxygenation during sustained force production in postmenopausal women with DM compared with controls. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in the flexor digitorum superficialis. Sensorimotor function and health state covariates were also assessed. Increased deoxyhemoglobin was found during force production, whereas oxyhemoglobin remained constant. Changes were found in the time structure of the hemodynamic data during force production. No between-group differences were found; instead, measures covaried with the health state. Sex-based differences in the manifestation of DM-related sensorimotor dysfunction are likely. These data indicate that basic cardiovascular health measures may be more beneficial to monitoring hyperemic status and muscle function in postmenopausal women with DM, compared with DM diagnosis.

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Oleg Zaslavsky, Yan Su, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, Inthira Roopsawang and Andrea Z. LaCroix

The authors examined whether the associations between physical activity (PA) levels and fatigue vary by body mass index and physical performance, and whether substituting sedentary time (ST) with low light PA, high light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with better mean fatigue scores. In total, 6,111 participants (aged 65 years and older) were from the Women’s Health Initiative Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study. PA levels were from a hip-worn GT3X accelerometer. Overall fatigue, energy, and weariness subdomains were from the RAND-36 Vitality subscale. Isotemporal substitution models examined the time-substitution effects. Interactions were observed between MVPA and short physical performance battery performance measure (p < .05). Substituting ST with 34.3 min of MVPA was associated on average with a 1.63-point improvement in fatigue score. Substituting ST with 50.2 min of low light PA and 34.3 min of MVPA was associated on average with an energy score improvement of 1.18 and 2.06 points respectively. Substituting ST with 34.3 min of MVPA was associated on average with a 1.08-point improvement in weariness score (p < .05 for all).

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Mariele Santayana de Souza and Michael J. Duncan

Background: Higher levels of actual and perceived motor competence are purported to lead to participation in physical activity (PA). Whereas considerable work has been published regarding motor and perceived competence and body mass index (BMI), much less is known about the association of these variables considering PA and engagement in physical education settings—the focus of the present study. Method: In 600 children (aged 3–10 y), PA during physical education lessons, locomotor skills, object control skills, perceived competence, and BMI (study 1) were assessed. In a subsample of 149 children, PA, engagement, and health-related fitness were assessed (study 2). Results: Structural equation model showed that in study 1, locomotor skills were the strongest variable in the early years, and object control skills were the strongest later, in explained PA. The regression analysis, in study 2, showed that BMI, object control skills, and engagement were significantly associated with PA and that appropriate motor engagement was the best predictor of PA. Conclusion: The authors extended previous research by providing evidence that motor competence varies across childhood in explaining participation in PA, and appropriate motor engagement plays a critical role in being active during lessons and was the strongest predictor of PA. BMI and self-perception were not significant in the models.

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Gohei Kato, Tomoyuki Arai, Yasuhiro Morita and Hiroaki Fujita

Built environmental factors are important for encouraging outdoor activity among community-dwelling older adults. A total of 214 participants aged 59–94 years were recruited from local cities in Japan. A mixed-effects multivariate linear regression model was conducted for the analysis. Parks that are easy to get to and car availability were positively associated with the number of days per week with any outdoor exposure. Further, the ability to conduct activities of daily living had a significant effect on the use of safe parks and walking areas and the number of days per week with outdoor time. The findings suggest that subjectively assessed neighborhood-built environments, such as readily available safe parks, walking areas, and car availability, are important for encouraging outdoor activity among older community-dwelling adults in Japan. For those with a limited ability to conduct daily activities, the safeness of parks and walking areas are most important.

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Christopher J. Keating, Juan  Á. Párraga Montilla, Pedro Á. Latorre Román and Rafael Moreno del Castillo

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a safe and effective means to combat chronic diseases. The objective of this work was to perform a systematic review of the effect of HIIT interventions in an aging population. Three electronic databases were searched for randomized trials comparing the effect of HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training in older adults. After a thorough screening process, 15 articles were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. All studies expressed a comparable or superior effect of HIIT in cardiorespiratory fitness measures. No studies reported a lessened effect of HIIT in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training. This systematic review demonstrates that HIIT is a useful exercise regimen, which can be used in older adults to increase cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to determine the effects of HIIT in an aging, predominately female population.

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

The objective was to determine whether trunk muscle function is influenced by the aging process and to identify if the trunk can be an important factor in older people’s falls over a period of 1 year. The peak torque, rate of torque development, and torque steadiness of the trunk extensors and flexors were compared between a young group, older group (older adults with no episodes of falls), and older faller group (older adults who had suffered at least one fall episode over a period of 1 year) by one-way analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Tukey test. The adjusted multivariate linear regression was applied to verify the association between the number of falls and the trunk parameters in older adults. The young group showed higher extensors and flexors peak torque and rate of torque development, and lower extensor torque steadiness at 10% when compared with older groups. Only trunk flexor peak torque showed a negative association with the number of future falls (p = .042), but there was no difference in trunk muscle function between the older group and the older faller group.

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Clara Teixidor-Batlle, Carles Ventura Vall-llovera, Justine J. Reel and Ana Andrés

The study purpose was to validate the psychometric properties of a Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes. The weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes assesses risk factors associated with sport-specific weight pressures from coaches, peers, and team uniform. The scale was back translated and administered to 407 Spanish male college athletes. The sample was randomly split to perform the exploratory and confirmatory analysis. After item analysis, three items were removed. The exploratory analysis identified two latent constructs (referring to coaches and teammates pressures, and pressures due to uniform), and the confirmatory analysis produced a two-factor model (comparative fit indexSB = .946, Tucker–Lewis indexSB = .925, root mean square of approximationSB = .071, standardized root mean square residualSB =.068). The overall scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = .82) and demonstrated adequate convergent validity with the other questionnaires. The Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes can be used to measure weight-related pressures among male athletes in sport psychology and clinical settings.

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

Background: Drinking water is recommended before and after exercise to avoid dehydration. However, water ingestion may mitigate or prevent postexercise hypotension. This study investigated the effects of intentional hydration on postaerobic exercise hemodynamics and autonomic modulation. Methods: A total of 18 young men randomly underwent 4 experimental sessions as follows: (1) control with intentional hydration (1 L of water in the previous night, 500 mL 60 min before the intervention, and 1 mL for each 1 g of body mass lost immediately after the intervention); (2) control without intentional hydration (ad libitum water ingestion before the intervention); (3) exercise (cycle ergometer, 45 min, 50% of VO2peak) with intentional hydration; and (4) exercise without intentional hydration. Hemodynamic and autonomic parameters were measured before and after the interventions and were compared by 3-way analysis of variance. Results: Intentional hydration did not change any postexercise hemodynamic nor autonomic response. Exercise decreased systolic blood pressure and stroke volume (−4.1 [0.8] mm Hg and −4.9 [1.5] mL, P < .05), while increased cardiac sympathovagal balance (0.3 [0.3], P < .05) during the recovery. In addition, it abolished the increase in diastolic blood pressure and the decrease in heart rate observed in the control sessions. Conclusion: Intentional hydration does not modify the hypotensive effect promoted by previous aerobic exercise and did not alter its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms.