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Michelle A. Sandrey, Cody Lancellotti and Cory Hester

Context: Soft tissue restrictions have been linked to poor flexibility and decreased range of motion (ROM). To decrease the soft tissue restrictions and ultimately increase ROM/flexibility, myofascial release techniques, such as foam rolling (FR) and instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), have been used. However, the benefit regarding which technique is more beneficial remains unknown. Objective: To examine the effects of myofascial release techniques (FR vs the instrumented portion of IASTM) on knee joint ROM, rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) fascial displacement, and patient satisfaction. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Mid-Atlantic University. Participants: Twenty moderately active participants (age 21.1 [2.0] y) with variable levels of soft tissue restriction in the quadriceps and hamstrings started and completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups, FR or IASTM. Interventions: All participants completed the same warm-up prior to the intervention. The FR group followed the proper FR protocol for gluteals/iliotibial band, quadriceps, and hamstrings/adductors, and the participants were monitored while the protocol was completed. The IASTM group received treatment on the gluteals/iliotibial band followed by the quadriceps, adductors, and hamstrings. Participants in both groups attended intervention sessions twice per week for 3 weeks. Prior to the start, knee ROM measurements were taken, along with fascial displacement measured via ultrasound. Upon completion of the study, posttest measurements were completed. A patient satisfaction survey was also administered at this time. Main Outcome Measures: Pretest to posttest knee ROM measurements, RF and BF fascial displacement, and patient satisfaction. Results: Both groups improved pretest to posttest for knee-extension ROM, with a slight trend toward increased knee-extension ROM for the FR group. Both groups improved pretest to posttest for BF and RF fascial displacement, in favor of the IASTM group for BF fascial displacement. Both groups were equally satisfied. Conclusions: As both groups improved pretest to posttest, either treatment could be used.

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Ioannis Syrmpas, Athanasios Papaioannou, Nikolaos Digelidis, Gokce Erturan and Mark Byra

Purpose: This study aimed to test the invariance of perceptions of the Spectrum teaching styles across Turkish and Greek preservice physical education teachers and to examine whether the styles could be classified into two clusters through self-determination theory. Greek (n = 298) and Turkish (n = 300) preservice teachers participated. Method: Cothran, Kulinna, and Ward’s questionnaire based on teachers’ use of and beliefs about teaching styles was used to examine their perceptions of the styles. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed 11 factor indices and parameter estimates, suggesting that the 11-factor model fit the data. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis established metric measurement invariance across samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that, for all higher-order models, the minimum requirement for invariance factor loading was met. The model comparison revealed that the styles could be categorized into four clusters from less to more autonomy-oriented. Conclusion: These findings might be useful to practitioners who want to use teaching styles in the promotion of students’ motivation in physical education.

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Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz, Alberto Gómez-Mármol, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela and Javier Courel-Ibáñez

Purpose: To investigate how a physical activity education program based on the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model affected disruptive behaviors in teenagers. Method: A total of 338 students (13–15 years old) from the 672 recruited completed a 4-month TPSR-model-based program during their physical education lessons. Disruptive behavior was recorded through systematic observation. Results: The students from the TPSR-model-based group reduced their violent behaviors (physical aggressions, verbal aggressions, interrupting, and total behaviors) after the intervention, whereas the control group remained the same. Conclusions: The TPSR school-based intervention was efficient in improving coexistence in terms of decreasing violent behaviors (physical and verbal aggressions) and undisciplined behaviors (continual interruptions of lessons) in students. The novel approach used to objectively assess emerging behaviors enriched the quality and validity of the quantitative data. Future research should address the use of objective assessment when conducting TPSR-model-based programs.

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Karen Lux Gaudreault, K. Andrew R. Richards, Kelly Simonton and Angela Simonton

Purpose: Building on research surrounding the occupational socialization of physical educators, scholars have begun asking questions about how physical educators are socialized within graduate programs both at the master’s and doctoral levels. As a part of a larger longitudinal investigation, the purpose of this study was to understand how participation in a research-focused masters’ program influenced the socialization of one in-service practitioner and one doctoral student over the 2-year period following degree completion. Method: Data sources included telephone focus group interviews, text message communication, and e-mail discussions. Data were analyzed inductively. Results: The data analysis resulted in the construction of the following themes: (a) developing independence, (b) enhanced theoretical knowledge, and (c) frustration and disenchantment with the profession. Discussion/Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the importance of leadership opportunities for doctoral candidates and beginning teachers, and the significance of relationship building for professional development.

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Weiyun Chen, Cynthia Bowers and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

Purpose: To present a pilot study that uses experiential learning theory to understand the effect of a Move to Read (MTR) program on student performance on a sight word test. Methods: Two groups in a school were compared. The academic struggling students (n = 37) received MTR activities in the classroom and physical education, whereas the regular academic achieving group (n = 28) only had the MTR activities in physical education during the eight and a half months’ pilot study. Students were tested using the Dolch Sight Word test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed no group differences. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the sight word test for the academically struggling group over time (F 2 = 152.276, p < .001, ηp2=.809). Conclusions: The MTR program shows promise for improving sight word performance using movement.

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Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding and Daniel J. Plews

Athletes may choose to perform exercise in the overnight-fasted state for a variety of reasons related to convenience, gut comfort, or augmenting the training response, but it is unclear how many endurance athletes use this strategy. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of exercise performed in the overnight-fasted state among endurance athletes using an online survey and examined differences based on sex, competitive level, and habitual dietary pattern. The survey was completed by 1,950 endurance athletes (51.0% female, mean age 40.9 ± 11.1 years). The use of fasted training was reported by 62.9% of athletes, with significant effects of sex (p < .001, Cramer’s Vc] = 0.18, 90% CI [0.14, 0.22]), competitive level (p < .001, φc = 0.09, 90% CI [0.5, 0.13]), and habitual dietary pattern noted (p < .001, φc = 0.26, 90% CI [0.22, 0.29]). Males, nonprofessional athletes, and athletes following a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet were most likely to perform fasted training. The most common reasons for doing so were related to utilizing fat as a fuel source (42.9%), gut comfort (35.5%), and time constraints/convenience (31.4%), whereas the most common reasons athletes avoided fasted training were that it does not help their training (47.0%), performance was worse during fasted training (34.7%), or greater hunger (34.6%). Overall, some athletes perform fasted training because they think it helps their training, whereas others avoid it because they think it is detrimental to their training goals, highlighting a need for future research. These findings offer insights into the beliefs and practices related to fasted-state endurance training.

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Xiaoyang Shi, Yan Wang, Xiuxiu Huang, Shangshang Gao, Qiaoqin Wan and Shaomei Shang

The study’s aims were to translate the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire to Chinese and examine its psychometric properties. Adapting it for use in China involved forward translation, synthesis, back translation, expert review, and pretesting. A convenience sample of 201 Chinese older adults completed the Chinese version (CHAMPS-C) to evaluate its construct validity index and associations with physiological, psychosocial, and energy expenditure measures. The construct validity index of the CHAMPS-C was 0.95, and it had fair to moderate associations with physiological and psychosocial measures, other scales of physical activity, and accelerometer measurements. Our structured, stepwise process of cross-cultural adaptation produced a scale (i.e., CHAMPS-C), with items equivalent in meaning to the English version, for use with Chinese older adults. The findings of this study indicate that the CHAMPS-C has acceptable reliability and validity to assess the physical activity of older Chinese adults.

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Gonzalo Varas-Diaz, Savitha Subramaniam, Larissa Delgado, Shane A. Phillips and Tanvi Bhatt

The purpose of this study was to determine if an exergaming-based dance training protocol can improve heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy older adults. A total of 20 healthy older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group received an exergaming-based dance aerobic training for 6 weeks, while the control group received a 1-hr education on conventional physical exercises. Data obtained from HRV analysis pre- (Week 0) and postintervention (Week 7) consisted of high-frequency power, low- and high-frequency ratio, and root mean square of differences and percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms values. HRV was assessed during rest and during a 6-min walk test. In addition, the YMCA submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to acquire estimated maximal O2 consumption pre- and postintervention. After the training, the intervention group showed significant improvement in HRV high-frequency power, root mean square of differences, and percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms values in both rest and 6-min walk test conditions compared with the control group. Similarly, the intervention group showed higher maximal O2 consumption compared with the control group after the training. Our results support the effectiveness of an exergaming-based dance aerobic training on improving cardiac autonomic control in aging.

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Erin Kraft, Diane M. Culver and Cari Din

The following practice paper introduces an innovative women-only training program for coach developers in a Canadian provincial sport organization. The dearth of women in coaching and sport leadership positions informs the program as a whole and the participant perspectives on what is working, in practice, for them specifically in a way that could support future sport leaders interested in increasing gender equity in their sport organizations and leadership skills in their female leaders. The aims of the coach developer program are two-fold: to promote women in leadership and to create a social learning space for women to connect and support each other in their leadership development. The purpose of this practice paper is to discuss the supports that have enabled the facilitation of this program and to explore the value of a women-only training program. Two women (out of a total of 10) participating in the program and two leads facilitating the program were interviewed for their perspectives. The lessons learned touch on the types of value that were created (immediate, potential, and applied) and the specific supports (micro, meso, and macro) that enabled the facilitation of the program. Finally, the authors discuss additional considerations (e.g., consistent buy-in from the organization is needed) with practical insights in the hopes of inspiring other sport organizations to implement similar initiatives for promoting women in leadership and coaching in sport.

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Alyson B. Harding, Nancy W. Glynn, Stephanie A. Studenski, Philippa J. Clarke, Ayushi A. Divecha and Andrea L. Rosso

Impaired mobility occurs in up to half of community-dwelling older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes and high health care costs. Although the built environment impacts mobility, most studies of older adults lack information about environmental-level factors. In-person observational audits can be utilized but cannot assess the historical environment. We applied a 78-item checklist to archived Google Street View imagery to assess historical residence access and neighborhood characteristics. Interrater reliability between two raters was tested on 50 addresses using prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). The mean PABAK for all items was .75, with 81% of the items having substantial (PABAK ≥ .61) or almost perfect (PABAK ≥ .81) agreement. Environmental assessment using archived virtual imagery has excellent reliability for factors related to residence access and many neighborhood characteristics. Archived imagery can assess past neighborhood characteristics, facilitating the use of historical environment data within existing cohorts.