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Amy Rauer and Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle

The current study explored concordance in spouses’ perceptions about exercise and how these perceptions predicted observed and self-reported marital functioning using a sample of 64 older married couples. Although couples were similarly motivated to exercise, their views on their physical fitness and potential barriers to exercise were uncorrelated. Dyadic analyses suggested that spouses’ exercise perceptions, particularly husbands’, were associated with how spouses treated each other during a marital problem-solving task and with their concurrent and future marital satisfaction. Exploring how spouses’ views of exercise are related to their marital functioning and for whom these links are most salient may highlight potential opportunities and challenges for those wishing to strengthen couples’ individual and relational well-being through exercise.

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between muscle quality index (MQI) and phase angle (PhA) after a program of progressive resistance training (RT) in older women. Sixty-six older women with previous RT experience (68.8 ± 4.6 years, 156.6 ± 5.3 cm, 66.0 ± 13.0 kg, and 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2) underwent 12 weeks of RT (3 ×/week, eight exercises, and 10–15 repetition maximum). Anthropometry, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum tests), and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and spectral bioimpedance) were measured pre- and posttraining. There were observed significant increases for PhA, MQI, muscular strength, muscle mass, and reactance, whereas no significant changes in body fat and resistance were found. A significant correlation was observed between the RT-induced relative changes in PhA and MQI (r = .620). We conclude that improvements in MQI induced by RT are associated with increases in PhA. Therefore, PhA may be a valid tool to track changes in MQI after 12 weeks of RT in older women.

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Jesudas E. Menon, David J. Stensel, Keith Tolfrey and Stephen F. Burns

Purpose: This study examined how manipulating meal frequency, with and without exercise, affects postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG). Methods: Fourteen sedentary men completed four 2-day trials in a noncounterbalanced random cross-over order: (1) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake without exercise (1-CON), (2) consumption of 2 smaller high-fat milkshakes without exercise (2-CON), (3) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake with exercise (1-EX), and (4) consumption of 2 small high-fat milkshakes with exercise (2-EX)—total energy intake was standardized across trials. On day 1, participants rested (1-CON and 2-CON) or walked briskly for 60 minutes (1-EX and 2-EX). On day 2, participants consumed either a single large high-fat milkshake (75% fat; 1-CON and 1-EX) for breakfast or 2 smaller isoenergetic milkshakes (2-CON and 2-EX) for breakfast and lunch. Plasma TAG were measured fasting and for 7 hours after breakfast. Results: Peak incremental TAG was 30% lower on 2-EX than 1-CON (P = .04, d = 0.38). Postprandial TAG increased more rapidly in the first 4 hours in 1-CON than other trials; but at 6 hours, TAG was exaggerated in 2-CON compared with 1-CON. Conclusions: Increasing meal frequency after exercise, without altering overall fat intake, attenuates postprandial TAG.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

Background: Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are prescribed programs to tackle physical inactivity and associated noncommunicable disease. Inconsistencies in reporting, recording, and delivering ERS make it challenging to identify what works, why, and for whom. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided this narrative review of reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of ERS. Inclusion criteria and quality assessed through A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). Data on uptake, attendance, and adherence were extracted. Results: Eleven reviews met inclusion criteria. AMSTAR quality was medium. Uptake ranged between 35% and 81%. Groups more likely to take up ERS included (1) females and (2) older adults. Attendance ranged from 12% to 49%. Men were more likely to attend ERS. Effect of medical diagnosis upon uptake and attendance was inconsistent. Exercises prescribed were unreported; therefore, adherence to exercise prescriptions was unreported. The influence of theoretically informed approaches on uptake, attendance, and adherence was generally lacking; however, self-determination, peer support, and supervision were reported as influencing attendance. Conclusions: There was insufficient reporting across studies about uptake, attendance, and adherence. Complex interventions such as ERS require consistent definitions, recording, and reporting of these key facets, but this is not evident from the existing literature.

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Eric T. Hyde, John D. Omura, Kathleen B. Watson, Janet E. Fulton and Susan A. Carlson

Background: To estimate the proportion of adults’ and parents’ knowledge of the adult aerobic and youth physical activity guidelines, respectively, in the United States. Methods: Data were analyzed from a national sample of adults in the 2017 ConsumerStyles survey. Prevalence of knowledge of the adult aerobic guideline (ie, 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity activity) was estimated among all respondents (n = 3910) and of the youth guideline (ie, 60 min/d of physical activity on 7 d/wk) among parents (n = 1288). Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for demographic characteristics. Results: Overall, 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.0–3.1) of adults and 23.0% (95% confidence interval, 20.5–25.7) of parents were knowledgeable of the adult aerobic and youth guidelines, respectively. After adjustment, odds of knowledge of the adult guideline differed significantly by sex and physical activity level, whereas knowledge of the youth guideline differed by parental education level. Conclusions: Despite the release of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans nearly a decade ago, most US adults and parents lack knowledge of the adult aerobic and youth physical activity guidelines. Effective communication strategies may help raise awareness of current and future editions of national guidelines for physical activity.

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

Background: Physical activity (PA) is said to be beneficial to many bodily functions. However, the effects of PA in the brain are still inadequately known. The authors aimed to uncover possible brain modulation linked with PA. Here, they combine 4 of their studies with monozygotic twins, who were within-pair discordant in PA for a minimum of 1 year. Methods: The authors performed brain imaging, brain electrophysiology, and cardiovascular and body composition assessments, and collected questionnaire-based data. The present synopsis elucidates the differences associated with differing PA history in conditions without genetic variability. They present new structural and electrophysiological results. Participants, healthy, 45 male monozygotic twins (mean age 34.5 [1.5] y) differed in aerobic capacity and fat percentage (P < .001). Results: More active co-twins showed larger gray matter volumes in striatal, prefrontal, and hippocampal regions, and smaller gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate area than less active co-twins. Functionally, visual and somatosensory automatic change detection processes differed between more and less active co-twins. Conclusions: In monozygotic twins, who differed in their PA history, differences were observed in identifiable anatomic brain locations involved with motor control and memory functions, as well as in electrophysiological measures detecting brain’s automatic processes. Better aerobic capacity may modify brain morphology and sensory function.

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Maxime Deshayes, Corentin Clément-Guillotin and Raphaël Zory

Previous research on the stereotype threat phenomenon has shown that inducing a negative stereotype toward a group debilitates motor performance despite the increase in motivation. Most of the studies focused on tasks requiring technical skills. However, what happens when the task does not require technical skills but focuses on energy expenditure? To examine this question, 34 male and female participants were assigned to a negative stereotype toward women and a nullified-stereotype condition and performed 20 min of self-paced cycling exercise. The authors hypothesized better performances when participants were assigned to the negative stereotype toward women condition than when assigned to the nullified-stereotype condition. As predicted, men and women increased their performances, accompanied by increases in heart rate. Concerning women, this result provides support for the notion that the effect of inducing a negative stereotype is task dependent, but further research is needed to more deeply investigate the mechanisms involved.

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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

We conducted Men on the Move, a 12-week randomized controlled feasibility trial of a scalable, choice-based, physical activity (PA) and active transportation intervention. Participants were community-dwelling men aged 60 years and older (n = 29 intervention [INT] and n = 29 waitlist control [CON]). Trained activity coaches delivered: (a) one-on-one participant consultations to develop personal action plans for PA and active transportation, (b) monthly group-based motivational meetings, (c) weekly telephone support, (d) complimentary recreation and transit passes, and (e) pedometers and diaries for self-monitoring. Men on the Move demonstrated high rates of recruitment, retention, and intervention adherence. INT chose a variety of group-based and individual PAs and destinations for their personal action plans. At 12 weeks, INT achieved more steps, moderate–vigorous PA, and energy expenditure than CON. INT was also more likely to take transit and meet national guideline levels of PA. At 24 weeks follow-up, INT benefits were sustained for moderate–vigorous PA and energy expenditure.

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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

We provide a systematic review of interventions utilizing mobile technology to alter physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among adults aged 50 years and older. A systematic search identified 52 relevant articles (randomized control trial [RCT], quasi-experimental, pre/post single-group design). Of 50 trials assessing physical activity, 17 out of 29 RCTs and 13 out of 21 trials assessed for pre/post changes only supported the effectiveness of mobile interventions to improve physical activity, and 9 studies (five out of 10 RCTs and all four pre/post studies) out of 14 reduced sedentary behavior. Only two of five interventions improved sleep (one out of two RCTs and one out of three pre/post studies). Text messaging was the most frequently used intervention (60% of all studies) but was usually used in combination with other components (79% of hybrid interventions included SMS, plus either web or app components). Although more high-quality RCTs are needed, there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of mHealth approaches in those aged 50 years and older.

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Karim Korchi, Frédéric Noé, Noëlle Bru and Thierry Paillard

Increasing somatosensory information from the foot by exercising barefoot can potentially optimize the effectiveness of physical exercise interventions on falls prevention in the older adults. This pilot study was then undertaken to explore the effects of increased somatosensory information from the foot by exercising barefoot on balance, gait, and plantar cutaneous sensitivity in institutionalized older adults involved in multimodal exercise intervention. Participants were assigned to three groups: a control group which did not perform any physical exercise and two groups in which they were involved in a multimodal exercise program performed barefoot or shod. Postural, gait, and plantar cutaneous sensitivity parameters were collected. The results showed that the exercise program produced larger effects on balance and plantar cutaneous sensitivity when exercises were performed barefoot, without any noticeable effect on gait. Hence, barefoot exercising could be a relevant means to optimize the fall-prevention exercise programs in institutionalized older adults.