Research on social-media use in sport should be expanded to include analyses of content popularity and comparisons across leagues. This study used content analysis and a multivariate multilevel model to compare content type and interaction across U.S. professional sport leagues. Results indicated that teams in the National Football League had the most comments, teams in the Major League Baseball had the most shares, and teams in the National Basketball Association had the most likes. Content coded as player and personnel promotion, which included behind-the-scenes content and human-interest stories, received the most interaction. Sport marketers can use this information to drive content strategy. However, content designed to encourage interaction is still posted less often than most other types of content. These results suggest that marketers in sport may be using Facebook to build relationships by connecting fans personally with players, but not by encouraging interaction or 2-way conversation.
Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann and Alanda Ketzler
Through this study, the author aimed to elucidate the asymmetrical patterns of dual attitude changes in the context of athlete endorsement. The main experiment included a test of the interactions of: Fit (low vs. high fit) × Evaluative conditioning (endorsement–positive vs. endorsement–negative feelings) × Introspection focus (logics vs. feelings). Based on the results, fit changed explicit attitudes, leaving implicit attitudes unchanged, whereas evaluative conditioning changed implicit attitudes to a greater extent. Introspection focus on logics (feelings) led participants to operate syllogistic inferences (associative evaluations); consequently, the logicality of fit (the conditioned feelings) determined both explicit and implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions. The study helps broaden current understandings of endorsement effectiveness by identifying situations in which dual attitude shifts intentions. Managers should be aware of the manipulability of consumers’ evaluation systems, and it is recommended to strategically employ either logic-reflected or feelings-elicited endorsement campaigns to leverage a brand’s equity.
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh
Sports, the arts, and events are products in their own right, and when sponsored, they become marketing and communication platforms. The current research examines the role of event emotions on sponsor recall and intent to attend the event in the future. An important theoretical argument is that feeling to be part of an in-group, measured as in-group entitativity, moderates the relationship between emotions and outcomes of memory and intentions. To test our theoretical model, we surveyed attendees at a multiday international track and field event. A total of 282 individuals were surveyed, and 232 of these attendees qualified as audience members and were included in the analysis. Moderated regression analyses revealed that excitement, joy, boredom, and overall tone of the group atmosphere impact event outcomes for the sport and the sponsor, and furthermore, that in-group entitativity can function as an important moderator. Contributions to theory and practice are discussed.
Mathew Dowling, Becca Leopkey and Lee Smith
This article examines the current state of sport governance research within the field of sport management. In adopting Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, a scoping review was conducted involving a comprehensive search of all published literature between 1980 and 2016. The process involved searching four electronic databases and a manual search of sport management journals. The search identified (N = 243) journal articles that examined sport governance–related issues. Findings are presented as a frequency and thematic analysis. The frequency analysis reveals a notable increase in sport governance research in recent years with a large number of nonempirical studies focused on the not-for-profit sector. The thematic analysis draws upon and extends Henry and Lee’s three notions of governance and identifies sport governance–related topics, research contexts, and social issues. Findings indicate that all three forms of governance (organizational, systemic, and political) have contributed to our understanding of sport governance, but more empirical and theoretically driven research is needed.
Jesse King and Robert Madrigal
Sport managers are often faced with a situation where they must activate an incongruent sponsorship in which the fit between a sponsor and property is not self-evident. Existing research has shown that consumers’ perceptions of fit enhance a sponsorship’s effectiveness. Therefore, the challenge is to explain how an otherwise incongruent sponsor and property are related to one another. The current research addresses this problem and considers analogy as a means for articulating an incongruent sponsorship. We find that analogical articulation offers distinct advantages over a more common method of articulating a sponsorship by describing how a property and sponsor’s consumer base overlap.
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly and Benoit Seguin
Nola Agha and Marijke Taks
The role of residents in the calculation of economic impact remains a point of contention. It is unclear if changes in resident spending caused by an event contribute positively, negatively, or not at all. Building on previous theory, we develop a comprehensive model that explains all 72 possible behaviors of residents based on changes in (a) spending, (b) multiplier, (c) timing of expenditures, and (d) geographic location of spending. Applying the model to Super Bowl 50 indicates that few residents were affected and positive and negative effects were relatively equivalent; thus, their overall impact is negligible. This leaves practitioners the option to engage in the challenging process of gathering data on all four variables on all residents or to revert back to the old model of entirely excluding residents from economic impact. From a theoretical perspective, there is a pressing need to properly conceptualize the time variable in economic impact studies.