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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Volume 11 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Volume 36 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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A Pilot Randomized Trial of Combined Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Exercise Training Versus Exercise Training Alone for the Management of Chronic Insomnia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Amanda Cammalleri, Aurore A. Perrault, Alexandra Hillcoat, Emily Carrese-Chacra, Lukia Tarelli, Rahul Patel, Marc Baltzan, Florian Chouchou, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Jean-Philippe Gouin, and Veronique Pepin

Insomnia treatment among individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea is suboptimal. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, 19 individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea were allocated to one of two arms: EX + EX, consisting of two 8-week phases of exercise training (EX), or RE + CBTiEX, encompassing 8 weeks of relaxation training (RE) followed by 8 weeks of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise (CBTiEX). Outcomes included Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), polysomnography, and cardiorespiratory fitness measures. A mixed-model analysis of variance revealed a Group × Time interaction on peak oxygen consumption change, F(1, 14) = 10.1, p = .007, and EX increased peak oxygen consumption (p = .03, g′ = −0.41) and reduced ISI (p = .001, g′ = 0.82) compared with RE (p = .49, g = 0.16) post-8 weeks. Post-16 weeks, there was a significant Group × Time interaction (p = .014) driven by RE + CBTiEX yielding a larger improvement in ISI (p = .023, g′ = 1.48) than EX + EX (p = .88, g′ < 0.1). Objective sleep was unchanged. This study showed promising effects of regular EX alone and combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia on ISI in comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea.

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Addressing the Critical Need for Holistic Mental Health Support in Rugby: Reflections on Systematic Review Findings

Lien-Chung Wei

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Concise Introduction to Sport Marketing

Zack P. Pedersen

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Factors Affecting Women Sports Officials’ Intention to Leave Across Europe

Pamela Wicker, George B. Cunningham, and Tom Webb

This study examines the factors affecting women officials’ intention to leave their chosen sport, including personal, work-related, and sociocultural factors. The empirical analysis is based on survey data of women officials in 69 different sports across Europe (n = 3,214). Overall, 10.7% of women expressed a turnover intention. Regression analyses indicate that this intention is higher for women who have more officiating experience (16–20 years), officiate at lower levels of sport (grassroots, junior), frequently experience abuse, and dislike the stress and time commitments of officiating, lack of support from the federation, and their lack of opportunity to progress. Younger women (≤24 years) with a mentor, who enjoy being part of a sport community and live in a more gender equal society are less likely to leave. The findings suggest that multiple factors are at work, which need to be addressed by sport managers to retain women in officiating roles.

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Interventions Based on Behavior Change Techniques to Encourage Physical Activity or Decrease Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Adults Aged 50–70: Systematic Review With Intervention Component Analysis

Saima Ahmed, Kimberly Lazo Green, Lisa McGarrigle, Annemarie Money, Neil Pendleton, and Chris Todd

Increasing physical activity (PA) and/or decreasing sedentary behaviors is important in the delay and prevention of long-term conditions. PA can help maintain function and independence and decrease the need for hospitalization/institutionalization. Activity rates often decline in later life resulting in a need for interventions that encourage uptake and adherence through the use of Behavior Change Techniques (BCTs). We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for interventions that included BCTs in community-dwelling adults with a mean age of 50–70. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. The interventions were psychosocial, nonpharmacological, and noninvasive interventions utilizing components based on BCTs that evaluated change in PA and/or sedentary behavior. Intervention Component Analysis (ICA) was used to synthesize effectiveness of intervention components. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in this review. The mean sample age was 50–64. Thirteen BCTs were used across all studies, and the most commonly used techniques were goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and natural consequences. Seven intervention components linked with BCTs were found: personalized goal setting, tailored feedback from facilitators, on-site and postintervention support, education materials and resources, reinforcing change on behavior and attitudes, self-reported monitoring, and social connectedness. All components, except for social connectedness, were associated with improved health behavior and PA levels. The interventions that use BCTs have incorporated strategies that reinforce change in behavior and attitudes toward PA.