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Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko and Oddrun Samdal

Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together. Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Multinominal analyses were conducted with 0 to 2 days of MVPA and below average PSP as reference categories. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported for pooled data and individual countries after controlling for family affluence scale. Results: Girls had better PSP than boys, yet more boys participated in daily MVPA than girls. The associations between PSP and MVPA were inverted U shaped. The strongest association for very good PSP was among young adolescents who reported 5 to 6 days MVPA (odds ratios = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–2.4) after controlling for family affluence scale. Conclusions: Young adolescents with average or better PSP took part in at least 3 days of MVPA in a week, suggesting that participating in some MVPA was positively associated with PSP. More days of MVPA in a week, especially for young adolescents with below average PSP, would be beneficial for health and school performance.

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Kim Gammage, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan and Kathleen Wilson

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Shuaijie Wang, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai, Edward Wang and Tanvi Bhatt

Slip outcomes are categorized as either a backward loss of balance (LOB) or a no loss of balance (no-LOB) in which an individual does not take a backward step to regain their stability. LOB includes falls and nonfalls, while no-LOB includes skate overs and walkovers. Researchers are uncertain about which factors determine slip outcomes and at which critical instants they do so. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors affecting slip outcomes in proactive and early reactive phases by analyzing 136 slip trials from 68 participants (age: 72.2 [5.3] y, female: 22). Segment angles and average joint moments in the sagittal plane of the slipping limb were compared for different slip outcomes. The results showed that knee flexor, hip extensor, and plantar flexor moments were significantly larger for no-LOB than for LOB in the midproactive phase, leading to smaller shank-ground and foot-ground angles at the slip onset, based on forward dynamics. In the early reactive phase, the hip extensor and plantar flexor moments were larger for no-LOB than for LOB, and all segment angles were smaller for no-LOB. Our findings indicate that the shank angle and knee moment were the major determinants of slip outcomes in both proactive and reactive phases.

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Nicholas L. Lerma, Chi C. Cho, Ann M. Swartz, Hotaka Maeda, Young Cho and Scott J. Strath

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a seated pedaling device to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the homes of older adults. Methods: Each participant (N = 20) was outfitted with an activity monitor and seated pedaling device in the home for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four light-intensity pedaling groups (15, 30, 45, and 60 min/day). Results: There was 100% adherence in all groups and significant group differences in the minutes pedaled per day (p < .001), with no significant difference in the total pedaling days completed (p = .241). The 15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-min groups experienced a 4.0%, 5.4%, 10.6%, and 11.3% reduction in SB on the days pedaled, respectively. Conclusion: Clinically relevant reductions in SB time were achievable in this 1-week trial. Long-term adherence and the impact of replacing SB with seated light activities on geriatric-relevant health outcomes should be investigated.

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Chonticha Kaewjoho, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Lugkana Mato, Saowanee Nakmaroeng, Supaporn Phadungkit and Sugalya Amatachaya

This single-blind, randomized controlled trial compared the effects of Thai dance exercise training on hard, soft, and sand surfaces on the functional outcomes of 120 community-dwelling older adults (40 subjects/group). The subjects were involved in a Thai dance exercise program on each surface, according to their groups, for 50 min/day, 3 days/week, for 6 weeks. The functional outcomes were assessed prior to training, at Week 3, and Week 6 after training. Subjects showed a significant improvement in all functional tests at 3 and 6 weeks after training, particularly in those who were trained on a sand surface and a soft surface (7–30% improvement, p < .05). The improvement was especially demonstrated in the complex and demanding motor activities after exercise on a soft and sand surface. Aside from attempting to modify training programs on a hard surface, the current findings suggest an alternative and cost-effective program to promote the levels of independence and safety that can be applied easily in clinical, home-based, and community settings.

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

Engaging in healthy eating and active living is an effective strategy for preventing noncommunicable diseases in older populations. The purposes were to compare the prevalence rates across countries and explore health factors associated with healthy eating and active living. The data were retrieved from a cross-sectional study conducted by the International Social Survey Program (2011 Health and Healthcare), with structured questionnaire surveys in 32 countries. The results showed that 38.42% reported active living and 39.11% reported healthy eating among 11,250 total respondents. Older adults with a long-standing illness or obesity who felt that they were not overcoming problems and had lost confidence were less likely to engage in healthy behavior. Perceived general health had a positive association with the odds of engaging in healthy eating and active living. The international comparisons provide a reference for local governments to decrease health disparities. Inspiring self-awareness about health might encourage older adults to pursue healthy lifestyles.

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Carla Luguetti, Kimberly L. Oliver and Melissa Parker

Purpose: This study aims to understand how a facilitator’s pedagogy changed over time in the process of supporting a community of learners to teach using an activist sport approach. Methods: Self-study framed this four-semester research project. Participants included the lead author, two critical friends, 10 preservice teachers, and 110 youth. Data collected included lead researcher’s field notes and debriefing meetings between the lead author and the two critical friends. Results: Findings identified the facilitator’s: (a) struggles to create a democratic learning space in a university context, (b) discomfort with giving up control and allowing for various degrees of preservice teachers’ engagement, and (c) negotiation of feeling of saudade (the love that remains after someone is gone) while creating a group identity. Discussion/Conclusion: A pedagogy of facilitation as an act of love offers genuine possibilities for decolonizing and reinventing reality by naming, critiquing, and challenging/negotiating forms of oppression.

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Dean Dudley, Nathan Weaver and John Cairney

Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is perceived to be an efficient way to meet health outcomes in physical education (PE), the effect of HIIT on the learning environment of students is unknown. Purpose: This study compared two PE interventions lasting 8 weeks and assessed the potential efficacy of embedding HIIT into a PE program to meet concurrent health and educative outcomes. Methods: Participants (N = 166; mean age = 12.91 years) were assigned to one of two study conditions according to intact groupings: HIIT program (n = 84) and dynamic PE (DPE) program (n = 82). Assessments occurred at baseline and postintervention. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the intervention effects in each group. Results: Postintervention analysis demonstrated increases in health indices of both groups and comparing the effect size of each intervention revealed no difference. Systematic direct observation revealed effects for the provision of terminal feedback within the HIIT intervention (g = 1.03) when compared with the DPE intervention. A self-report questionnaire revealed changes in motivation toward PE among students allocated to the HIIT group were trivial, whereas students exposed to the DPE program displayed increased levels of motivation toward their PE experience. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HIIT may elicit positive changes in PE settings by creating a “time potential” leading to an increased opportunity to learn without negating health gains. The DPE program proved to be move favorable in terms of student motivations to learn during PE.

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Risto Marttinen, Mara Simon, Sharon Phillips and Ray N. Fredrick III

Purpose: To understand where and how Latina girls are physically active outside of the Reflective Educational Approach to Character and Health program and the impact of female role models on participation in the program. Methods: The authors implemented a yearlong after-school physical activity and literacy program for fifth and sixth grade girls (N = 22 girls) in a low-income, urban community. Four university students/coaches delivered all sessions. Data were triangulated through 10 Latina girls’ interviews, student journals, coaches’ journals, researcher journals, and field notes, and analyzed using constant comparison. Results: Girls participated in leisure-time physical activities with family in community spaces, in spite of social and cultural barriers. Female coaches facilitated girls’ increased engagement by acting as strong role models and fostering caring relationships. Conclusion: After-school programs, community spaces, and strong connections with coaches play a critical role in students’ engagement in physical activity.