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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Examining Ableism Through the Physical Activity Experiences of Blind and Visually Impaired Women

Lindsey E. Ball and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: This study examined how ableism influences blind and visually impaired women’s experiences accessing and engaging in exercise, physical activity, and sport. Methods: Ten women between the ages of 27 and 45 years completed a one-on-one audio-recorded virtual interview where they reflected on the meaningfulness of their exercise, physical activity, and/or sport experiences, as well as described any experiences related to direct, indirect, systemic, or internalized ableism within or when attempting to access those physical activity experiences. The interview transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: The analysis resulted in the construction of 2 themes that depicted the participants’ experiences: (1) “It’s exhausting”: navigating inaccessibility and (2) “You feel like a fish out of water”: internalized ableism. Discussion: The themes highlight the participants’ experiences which were largely focused on being forced to navigate inaccessible environments which resulted in exhaustion and expressions of internalized ableism. These findings provide insight into what makes and does not make a physical activity space accessible and welcoming for blind and visually impaired adults.

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The Inducers of an Elite Male Table Tennis Player’s Emotional Experience Throughout His Career: A Single Case Study Based on the Critical-Incident Method

Oriane Petiot, Gilles Kermarrec, Jérôme Visioli, and Guillaume Martin

Despite a growing interest in emotions in sport psychology, little has been written about the contextual elements triggering athletes’ emotional experience. This single case study aimed to analyze the inducers of an elite table tennis player’s emotional experience throughout his career. He was ranked among the 15 best players in the world, and his career spanned more than 20 years. Inspired by the critical-incident method, we conducted a lengthy interview with the player, during which he related the most significant moments of his career. The categorization of the 96 critical incidents collected highlighted four inducers of positive emotions and five inducers of negative emotions, emerging over five periods (exponential progression, first difficulties, major difficulties, second career, and end of career). These findings contribute to the development of an innovative single-case-study design, allowing an understanding of the contextual origin of athletes’ emotions over the long term. Finally, highlights are discussed and recommendations for the practice of sport psychology are formulated.

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“PE Is More Than Playing Kick Ball the Entire Hour”: Using Standards-Based Grading to Elevate Physical Education’s Status Among Preservice Physical Educators

Matt Townsley and Scott W.T. McNamara

Purpose: This study sought to examine how preservice physical educators conceptualize and intend to use standards-based grading (SBG) after receiving a 1-hr workshop on implementing SBG into a physical education (PE) setting. Method s: Using a qualitative descriptive approach, the researchers utilized class reflection assignments, a perceptions survey, and interviews with 10 undergraduate physical educators at a Midwestern university. Findings: The SBG workshop positively influenced participants’ views of the importance of PE, enhanced their attitudes toward organized and meaningful instructional planning, and shaped participants’ perceived norms and level of control when implementing SBG in their future classrooms. Discussion/Conclusion: SBG provides a means for preservice physical educators to validate their field and area of study and to visualize the interconnectedness of teaching, learning, and assessment within PE.

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Barriers to Participation in Organized Physical Activity Among LGBTQ+ Youth: Differences by Sexual, Gender, and Racial Identities

Benjamin Parchem, Jonathan Poquiz, Ryan L. Rahm-Knigge, Elizabeth Panetta, Ryan J. Watson, and G. Nic Rider

Background: LGBTQ+ youth engage in organized physical activity to a lesser degree than their cisgender and heterosexual counterparts. Existing literature on this organized physical activity disparity is limited, particularly with LGBTQ+ youth samples. The current analysis examined individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity for LGBTQ+ youth across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Methods: A subsample of LGBTQ+ students (N = 4566) from the 2021 Dane County Youth Assessment completed items that measured barriers to organized physical activity and systemic factors (ie, family money problems and bias-based bullying) associated with access to organized physical activity. Latent class analysis discerned patterns of individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity. Latent class regression modeling tested gender, sexual, and racial identities as correlates of latent class membership. Results: More than half of the sample did not participate in organized physical activity. Four profiles of LGBTQ+ youth were discerned based on self-reported barriers: high barrier (8%), bullied (16%), low interest or perceived skills (28%), and low barrier (48%). The low-barrier class included a greater proportion of LGBTQ+ youth who identified as White, or cisgender, or heterosexual as well as youth self-reporting higher organized physical activity. The high-barrier and bullied classes comprised more marginalized gender and sexual identities. Conclusions: LGBTQ+ youth experience individual and systemic barriers to organized physical activity, including inequitable access and bullying, and barriers are uniquely experienced across sexual, gender, and racial identities. Physical activity promotion among LGBTQ+ youth would be strengthened by policies that address inequitable access to opportunities and bias-based bullying.

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Exploring Gender Diversity and Trauma- and Violence-Informed Sport for Development

Julia Ferreira Gomes, Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst, Francine Darroch, and Marika Warner

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated gender-based violence (GBV) rates in Canada, especially affecting young women and gender-diverse youth. Trauma- and violence-informed physical activity and sport for development (SFD) are recognized strategies for supporting survivors of violence, preventing GBV, and challenging gender norms. This paper explores the potential of trauma- and violence-informed approaches with a Canadian SFD organization, focusing on programs aimed to promote gender diversity and address GBV. Grounded in intersectional feminism and queer theory, findings from interviews with SFD staff and participants (n = 15) revealed challenges in maintaining a trauma- and violence-informed approach in a heteronormative sporting space. In conclusion, further research on trauma-informed SFD is crucial due to increasing GBV rates in sport.

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Managing the Complexity: An Ethnographic Approach to Understanding Noticing Within Orchestration

Aubrey Newland and Lori A. Gano-Overway

Sport coaching is an inherently complex endeavor. To manage this complexity, some coaches engage in orchestration to plan, organize, monitor, and respond to the dynamic sport environment. Using an ethnographic approach, the current research aimed to understand how a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II female basketball coach orchestrated the complex and relational nature of coaching over the course of a sport season and with particular attention to how noticing occurred and informed orchestration. A combination of formal and informal coach and player interviews, observation and field notes, and audio reflections of the coach was carried out over the course of the season. The authors used a realist tale to illustrate the complexity of the coaching experience and how the coach used noticing and relational schemas to navigate ambiguity, the micropolitical landscape, and interpersonal relationships to steer the team toward personal growth and high performance.

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Martial Arts and Combat Sports for Youth: A 10-Year Scoping Review

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are lifelong nontraditional activities seldom available for youth in school settings. Research has found that MA&CS can promote a variety of benefits to youth with novel experiences that promote nonviolent, psychological, affective, cognitive, and physical outcomes. Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and categorize the peer-reviewed research with a pedagogical focus on MA&CS for youth across 10 years. Methods: The key terms used related to MA&CS and young people. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping review guidelines and included peer-reviewed empirical articles from six databases in English and Portuguese from 2013 to 2022. Results: The Results section was divided into a quantitative description of the literature analyzed and a discussion of the psychological, social, affective, physical, cognitive, and academic benefits of MA&CS interventions. Conclusion: MA&CS interventions can provide multiple benefits for youth in physical education and out-of-school settings.

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Peak Performance: Characteristics and Key Factors in the Development of the World Top-8 Swimmers Based on Longitudinal Data

Yuming Chen, Chenbin Huang, Hui Chen, Ting Huang, Christine Su, and Jiexing Chen

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the peak performance characteristics of the world top-8 swimmers and the key factors involved in the journey toward achieving better peak performance. Methods: The results of the world top-8 swimmers from 2001 to 2022 were collected from the World Aquatics performance database. Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories (1191 cases). Utilizing k-means clustering to group competitive feature variables, this study investigated key developmental factors through a binary logistic regression model, using the odds ratio (OR) to represent whether a factor was favorable (OR > 1) or unfavorable (OR < 1). Results: Significant differences (P < .001) in the peak age between men (23.54/3.80) and women (22.31/4.60) were noticed, while no significant differences (P > .05) in the peak-performance window for both sexes appeared. Peak performance occurred at later ages for the sprint for both sexes, and women had a longer duration in peak-performance window for sprint (P < .05). Peak-performance occurred at later ages for the breaststroke and butterfly for both sexes (P < .05). Binary logistic regression revealed that high first-participation performance (OR = 1.502), high major-competition performance (OR = 4.165), early first-major-competition age (OR = 1.441), participation frequency above 4 times/year in both phase 2 (4.3–8.0 times/y, OR = 3.940; 8.1–20.0 times/y, OR = 5.122) and phase 3 (4.1–7.5 times/y: OR = 5.548; 7.7–15.0 times/y: OR = 7.526), and a career length of 10 years or more (10–15 y, OR = 2.102; 16–31 y, OR = 3.480) were favorable factors for achieving better peak performance. Conclusions: Peak performance characteristics varied across sex, swimming stroke, and race distance in the world top-8 swimmers. Meanwhile, the research indicated that certain specific developmental factors were key conditions for the world top-8 swimmers to achieve better peak performance in the future.