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George H. Franklin, Daniel J. Brown, Emma Vickers, and Grace E. Harrison

The number of elite athletes from the United Kingdom choosing to migrate to the United States is increasing. Grounded in the push–pull framework, this was the first study to exclusively explore the motivations and experiences of elite British female gymnasts who migrated to American universities and competed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with seven former gymnasts and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results document how this pathway provided gymnasts with an opportunity to extend their career in a positive environment, escaping the intense and autocratic culture that dominated gymnastics in Britain. Moreover, this pathway facilitated lasting athletic and personal development including enhanced retirement from the sport. From a practice standpoint, it appears important that gymnasts be educated about the pathways available to them and that British sport organizations be supported in reshaping their environments to create more desirable and sustainable systems.

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Larissa Di Bella, Kenji Doma, Wade Heath Sinclair, and Jonathan Douglas Connor

Purpose: This crossover trial compared the effects of varying feedback approaches on sprint performance, motivation, and affective mood states in female athletes. Methods: Eligibility criteria were being competitive female athletes, where participants completed sprint tests in 4 randomized feedback conditions on grass, including augmented feedback (sprint time; AUG-FB), technical feedback (cues; TECH-FB), a competition-driven drill (CDD) sprinting against an opponent, and a control condition (no feedback; CON). Participants completed a 20-m sprint (maximum sprint), 30-m curved agility sprint, and a repeated sprint ability test, with sprint times, motivation level, and mood states recorded. The participants were blinded from the number of trials during the repeated sprint ability test. Results: About 12 rugby league players completed all feedback conditions. The maximum sprint times were faster for AUG-FB (3.54 [0.16] s) and CDD (3.54 [0.16] s) compared with TECH-FB (3.64 [0.16] s), while there were no differences compared with CON (3.58 [0.17] s). The curved agility sprint times were faster for AUG-FB (5.42 [0.20] s) compared with TECH-FB (5.61 [0.21] s) and CON (5.57 [0.24] s), although CDD (5.38 [0.26] s) produced faster sprint times than TECH-FB. Effort and value were higher with AUG-FB (6.31 [0.68]; 6.53 [0.05]) compared with CON (5.99 [0.60]; 4.75 [2.07]), while CON exhibited lower enjoyment ratings (4.68 [0.95]) compared with other feedback conditions (AUG-FB: 5.54 [0.72]; CDD: 5.56 [0.67]; TECH-FB: 5.60 [0.56]). Conclusions: Providing AUG-FB prior to sprint tasks enhances more immediate performance outcomes than TECH-FB. AUG-FB also benefited athlete enjoyment, task effort, and coaching value. Female athletes should receive AUG-FB in testing and training environments, to improve immediate physical performance and motivation.

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Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Raktim Mitra, Ritu Sharma, and Sarah A. Moore

This study explored the association between socioecological factors and outdoor physical activity (PA) and play in children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents (N = 133) completed a survey to report changes in their child’s outdoor PA and play during the pandemic (from prepandemic levels), and child, household, and neighborhood environment factors. Children with a PA-supporting parent and from multichild and White households had lower odds of reporting decreased outdoor PA. Children from multichild, higher income, married couple households and a PA-supporting parent had lower odds of decreased outdoor play. Living in neighborhoods with higher urbanization (i.e., high dwelling density, street intersections, and land-use mix) was associated with greater odds of decreased outdoor PA and play. Future research that uses larger and more representative samples of children with disabilities is needed to test for the multivariate effects of socioecological variables on outdoor PA and play.

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Henry J. Hopwood, Phillip M. Bellinger, Heidi R. Compton, Matthew N. Bourne, and Clare Minahan

Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to (1) determine the muscle fiber-type composition (or muscle fiber typology [MFT]) of team-sport athletes and (2) examine associations between MFT and the physical characteristics and performance tasks in team-sport athletes. Methods: Searches were conducted across numerous databases—PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar—using consistent search terms. Studies were included if they examined the MFT of team-sport athletes. Included studies underwent critical appraisal using the McMasters University critical appraisal tool for quantitative research. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in the present review, wherein the MFT of athletes was measured from 5 different team sports (soccer, rugby union, rugby league, handball, and volleyball). There was large variability in the MFT of team-sport athletes both within (up to 27.5%) and between sports (24.0% relative difference). Male football players with a higher proportion of type II fibers had faster 10- and 30-m sprint times, achieved a greater total distance sprinting (distance at >6.67 m·s−1), and a greater peak 1-minute sprint distance. Conclusions: MFT varies considerably between athletes both within and between different team sports. The results from some studies suggest that variation in MFT is associated with high-intensity running performance in a football match, as well as 10- and 30-m sprint times. Further experimental studies should focus on how determination of the MFT of team-sport athletes could be utilized to influence talent identification, team selection, and the individualization of training.

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Thomas Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, and Øyvind Sandbakk

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Sida Chen, Zixue Tai, and Jianping Liu

Background: Tai Ji Quan (TJQ) has broad appeal to people of all ages and backgrounds. This study aimed to examine a variety of individual and environmental factors in the dissemination of TJQ to diverse practicing communities in China. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was utilized in the research design. Quantitative data were collected via an online survey using a national sample (N = 737), whereas qualitative data came from focus groups and in-depth interviews. Analysis was performed along the RE-AIM dimensions of reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results: We divided TJQ experience into 4 distinct categories (nonlearners, current learners, quitters, and retainers) and observed significant patterns of variation along lines of occupation groups and age cohorts. A significant male/female difference was detected in TJQ experience among college students but not the general public, and having practicing family members was an important predictor of personal TJQ history. Varied TJQ experience has a significant impact on perceptions of TJQ’s miscellaneous values as well as level of satisfaction with its health outcomes. Conclusions: Both individual (personal) and environmental (settings) factors are important in shaping personal decisions in TJQ engagement. An ecological approach coordinating individual factors and settings resources is essential in promoting TJQ to the general population.