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Jalil Moradi, Mohammad Maleki, and Hadi Moradi

This study aimed to investigate the effect of part and whole practice on learning basketball lay-up shot skill in young and adolescent male students. Participants were randomly divided into four groups of part and whole practice, namely, part practice-young, whole practice-young, part practice-adolescent, and whole practice-adolescent. After a pretest in basketball lay-up shot test, the training protocol was held for 5 weeks (three sessions per week). After the last training session, the posttest was taken, and 1 week after the posttest, a retention test was performed. The results in the acquisition stage showed a significant difference between the four groups (p = .03). The post hoc test results showed that there was no significant difference between the part and whole practice groups. Also, in the retention phase, there was no significant difference between the groups. However, the part practice-young group performed better than the whole practice-young group, while the whole practice-adolescent group performed better than the part practice-adolescent. According to the research findings, it can be concluded that age is probably not an effective factor in the effectiveness of part and whole practice in learning basketball lay-up shot. However, more research with more practice trials is needed in this regard.

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Derrik Motz, Bradley W. Young, Scott Rathwell, and Bettina Callary

The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey assesses how often coaches use practices tailored to adult and older adult athletes. Cross-sectionally, said practices contribute to a quality masters sport experience for masters athletes (MAs); however, the stability of adult-oriented coaching over time and whether changes in coaching over time correspond with psychosocial outcomes for MAs is unknown. Therefore, coaches (N = 32; M age = 49.0) and MAs (N = 103; M age = 51.5) completed the Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey twice 8 weeks apart. MAs also completed criterion measures for facets of the coach–athlete relationship, basic needs satisfaction, and thwarting. Our first question was whether mean group values for adult-oriented coaching changed over time. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated stability of coaches’ and MAs’ scores. Our second question was whether changes in adult-oriented coaching corresponded with changes on criterion measures. Path analyses showed increased perceived frequency of adult-oriented coaching that, generally, was associated with enhancing three facets of the coach–athlete relationship, relatedness satisfaction, autonomy satisfaction, and reducing competency thwarting. The discussion centers on how adult-oriented coaching might facilitate quality sporting relationships, empowerment, and mastery in adult sport programming. These nonintervention results are interpreted with an eye toward considerations in future Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey-based coaching interventions.

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Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff

Context: Induced mental fatigue negatively impacts sport performance and neurocognition. However, it is unclear how induced mental fatigue influences landing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mental fatigue on drop landing biomechanics in individuals with and without a concussion history. Design: Crossover design. Methods: Forty-eight (24 per group) recreationally active individuals were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). All participants completed an experimental (30-min Stroop task) and control (30-min reading magazines) intervention on separate days separated by a minimum of 24 hours. Drop landings were performed before and after both interventions. Outcomes included peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vertical loading rate (VLR), knee flexion angle, knee abduction angle, external knee flexion moment, external knee abduction moment, and initial ground contact knee flexion and knee abduction angles. Separate 2 (group) × 2 (intervention) between-within analyses of covariance compared drop landing outcomes. Each group’s average pre-Stroop and premagazine outcomes were covariates. Results: There was a significant interaction for vGRF (P = .033, η p 2 = .097 ) and VLR (P = .0497, η p 2 = .083 ). The vGRF simple effects were not statistically significantly (P range = .052–.325). However, individuals with a concussion history displayed a medium effect size for greater vGRF post-Stroop compared with their own postmagazine vGRF (mean difference (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.163 (–0.002 to 0.327) bodyweight (BW), p = .052, η p 2 = .081 . In contrast, the control group displayed a small effect size (mean difference [95% CI] = 0.095 [–0.069 to 0.259] BW, p = .251, η p 2 = .029 ). Individuals with a concussion history displayed greater VLR post-Stroop compared with controls (mean difference [95% CI], 26.29 [6.19 to 46.40] BW/s, P = .012, η p 2 = .134 ) and their own postmagazine values (mean difference [95% CI] = 32.61 [7.80 to 57.42] BW/s, p = .011, η p 2 = .135 ). Conclusion: Mental fatigue leads to greater VLR for individuals with a concussion history. Athletic competition and activities of daily living can increase mental fatigue. Training programs may seek to teach mental fatigue reducing strategies to athletes with a concussion history.

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Sameer Jhaveri, Matthew Romanyk, Ryan Glatt, and Nikhil Satchidanand

Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediate state between the cognitive decline often experienced in normal aging and dementia that affects 15% of Americans over 65 years of age. Our communities have an opportunity to support the development and adoption of evidence-based programs to help older adults preserve cognition and physical function. In partnership with a local urban YMCA in an underserved, predominantly minority neighborhood, we tested the appeal and therapeutic benefits of SMARTfit training among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. The participants reported a positive training experience. After 12 weeks of dual-task training, Trail-Making Test and Stroop Color–Word Interference Test scores improved, as did scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results of our SMARTfit dual-task training intervention are encouraging. Larger randomized controlled trials must further investigate the development, implementation, and therapeutic impacts of SMARTfit dual-task training on cognitive and physical function in aging.

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Kobe M. Vermeire, Kevin Caen, Jan G. Bourgois, and Jan Boone

Purpose: To examine the differences in training load (TL) metrics when quantifying training sessions differing in intensity and duration. The relationship between the TL metrics and the acute performance decrement measured immediately after the sessions was also assessed. Methods: Eleven male recreational cyclists performed 4 training sessions in a random order, immediately followed by a 3-km time trial (TT). Before this period, participants performed the time TT in order to obtain a baseline performance. The difference in the average power output for the TTs following the training sessions was then expressed relative to the best baseline performance. The training sessions were quantified using 7 different TL metrics, 4 using heart rate as input, 2 using power output, and 1 using the rating of perceived exertion. Results: The load of the sessions was estimated differently depending on the TL metrics used. Also, within the metrics using the same input (heart rate and power), differences were found. TL using the rating of perceived exertion was the only metric showing a response that was consistent with the acute performance decrements found for the different training sessions. The Training Stress Score and the individualized training impulse demonstrated similar patterns but overexpressed the intensity of the training sessions. The total work done resulted in an overrepresentation of the duration of training. Conclusion: TL metrics provide dissimilar results as to which training sessions have higher loads. The load based on TL using the rating of perceived exertion was the only one in line with the acute performance decrements found in this study.

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Ewan Clements, Fabian Ehrmann, Andrew Clark, Mark Jones, Alan McCall, and Rob Duffield

Purpose: This study investigated the association between (1) time zone difference and (2) travel direction (east vs west) with posttravel changes in perceptual responses of national-team footballers. Methods: Travel schedules from 355 national-team trips (50 elite soccer players) were verified using an online flight database. All players provided perceptual ratings of fatigue, sleep quality, soreness, and stress to calculate changes in scores up to 2 days after travel. Trips were categorized as <3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, or 9+ time zone changes, along with travel direction (eastward or westward). The pretravel to posttravel changes in perceptual ratings at days 1 and 2 postarrival were compared between time zone change and travel direction with linear mixed models. Results: For every time zone crossed, poorer ratings of perceptual fatigue (β = 0.068, P < .001), sleep (β = 0.095, P < .001), soreness (β = 0.0049, P < .001), and total wellness (β = 0.214, P < .001) were observed. However, the models explained only small proportions of the variation in postflight perceptual responses (7%–18%). Regardless, travel across 9+ time zones resulted in significantly worse perceived fatigue, sleep, and total wellness for days 1 and 2 postarrival compared with travel with <6 time zones (P < .05). Additionally, fatigue, sleep, and total scores were worse on day 2 following trips of 9+ time zones. Eastward travel resulted in poorer sleep ratings (β = 0.52, P < .001) than westward travel within time zone groupings. Conclusions: Perceptual ratings of fatigue and sleep become progressively worse as travel increases in national-team soccer players, especially after travel across 9+ time zones and eastward travel.

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Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.

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Filiz Başol, İlke Kara, and Tülay Çevik Saldıran

Objectives: The whole-body vibration (WBV) effects on muscle strength show inconsistent results. Moreover, there is no study about the WBV effect on stiffness, elasticity, and muscle strength. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the effect of WBV exposure with static squat posture on the stiffness, elasticity, and strength of the lower-limb extensor muscles. Material and Methods: Forty healthy untrained young adults were divided into WBV and control groups. The experimental group received WBV exposure on 2 nonconsecutive days of the week, for 6 weeks. The MyotonPRO device was used for the assessment of the knee extensor and the ankle dorsiflexors’ stiffness and elasticity. Isometric muscle strength was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer. All measurements were done by the same assessor at baseline, and the following 6 weeks. Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the elasticity scores of the right (d = 0.84, P = .01) and left (d = 0.77, P = .02) ankle dorsiflexors. Similar to the elasticity measurements, significant group-by-time interactions were observed in the muscle strength scores of the right (d = 0.45, P = .046) and left (d = 1.25, P < .001) ankle dorsiflexors. No significant effects were observed in any of the evaluated muscle stiffness measurements (P > .05), and there was no significant group-by-time interaction in knee-extensor muscle strength and elasticity scores (P > .05). Conclusions: The study results indicate that if the ankle dorsiflexor strength and elasticity are desired to be increased, the 6-week WBV exposure in a static squat posture can be used in healthy individuals.