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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Accelerometer-Based Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Among Samoan Adults

Nicola L. Hawley, Parmida Zarei, Scott E. Crouter, Mayur M. Desai, Alysa Pomer, Anna C. Rivara, Take Naseri, Muagututia Sefuiva Reupena, Satupaitea Viali, Rachel L. Duckham, and Stephen T. McGarvey

Background: The prevalence of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease in Samoa is among the highest globally. While physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity-related disease, little is known about physical activity levels among adult Samoans. Using wrist-worn accelerometer-based devices, this study aimed to characterize physical activity among Samoan adults. Methods: Samoan adults (n = 385; 55% female, mean [SD] age 52 [10] y) wore Actigraph GT3X+ devices for 7 to 10 days. General linear models were used to examine mean daily minutes of sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity by various participant characteristics. Results: Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity did not differ statistically between men (88 [5] min; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80–97) and women (78 [4] min; 95% CI, 70–86; P = .08). Women, however, spent more time than men in light physical activity: 380 (7) minutes (95% CI, 367–393) versus 344 (7) minutes (95% CI, 329–358; P < .001). While there were no differences in physical activity by census region, education, or occupation among women, men in urban areas spent significantly less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity than those in peri-urban and rural areas (P = .015). Women with class II/III obesity spent more time in sedentary activities than those with healthy weight or overweight/class I obesity (P = .048). Conclusions: This study characterizes physical activity among Samoan adults and highlights variation by sex, urbanicity, and weight status. In providing initial device-measured estimates of physical activity in Samoa, this analysis establishes a baseline from which the success of future attempts to intervene on physical activity may be assessed.

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Celebrating 10 Years of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Do Parental Beliefs and Support Predict the Motor Competence of Youth With Visual Impairments?

Alexandra Stribing, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Parents tend to play a vital role in their child’s motor competence for youth with visual impairments. However, little research has explored parental mindsets and support (e.g., transportation) surrounding their child’s motor skills and how it may predict motor competence. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parents’ mindset items along with parental support may predict their children’s actual motor competence. Parents of youth with visual impairments (N = 92; mothers = 69.5%, fathers = 18.1%; M age = 42.91 years, SD = 8.08 years) completed the modified parents’ perception questionnaire. Youth with visual impairments ages 9–19 years (N = 95; M age = 153.35 months, SD = 27.58 months, girls = 37.1%, boys = 53.3%, 9.6% missing) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-third edition. Results from a backward linear regression convey parental beliefs (i.e., growth mindsets) and support variables (e.g., providing transportation) significantly predicted their child’s actual motor competence, F(6, 84) = 9.77, p < .001, adj. R 2 = .37. Results could inform parents on their importance toward supporting and believing in developing their child’s motor competence.

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Learning to Integrate STEM Into Physical Education Through Asynchronous Professional Development Modules

Risto Marttinen, Dominique Banville, Nancy Holincheck, Vernise June Ferrer Lindsay, and Stephanie Stehle

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand nine physical education (PE) teachers’ experiences with an asynchronous professional development module focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) integration, and the barriers they perceived to integrating STEM into PE. Methods: Semistructured interviews, pre- and post open-ended questionnaires, and discussion board posts were analyzed through a collaborative coding process. Trustworthiness was increased by using a peer debriefer, multiple coders, negative case checks, and data triangulation. Results: Four themes describe the experiences of PE teachers learning to integrate STEM into PE: teacher’s knowledge about technology and STEM, barriers to PE teachers in integrating STEM, “We’re already integrating STEM,” and issues in professional development. Discussion/Conclusion: STEM integration is possible if PE teachers are provided time and opportunities to work with content experts to learn STEM concepts and have STEM be a by-product of PE lessons rather than the sole focus of the lesson.

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Measurement Reactivity in Ecological Momentary Assessment Studies of Movement-Related Behaviors

Jaclyn P. Maher, Danielle Arigo, Kiri Baga, Gabrielle M. Salvatore, Kristen Pasko, Brynn L. Hudgins, and Laura M. König

Measurement reactivity has implications for behavioral science, as it is crucial to determine whether changes in constructs of interest represent true change or are an artifact of assessment. This study investigated whether measurement reactivity occurs for movement-related behaviors, motivational antecedents of behavior, and associations between them. Data from ecological momentary assessment studies of older adults (n = 195) and women in midlife (n = 75) lasting 8–10 days with 5–6 prompts/day and ambulatory monitoring of movement were used for this secondary data analysis. To examine potential drop-off patterns indicative of measurement reactivity, multilevel models tested whether behavior, antecedents, and associations changed after the first or first 2 prompts compared with remaining prompts and the first, first 2, or first 3 days compared with remaining days. Older adults’ sedentary behavior was lower, and time spent upright and intentions and self-efficacy to stand/move were higher on the first 2 and first 3 days compared with remaining days. Associations between intentions and self-efficacy and subsequent sedentary behavior were weaker earlier in the study compared to later. For women in midlife, light physical activity was higher at the first and first 2 prompts compared with remaining prompts, and physical activity motivation was higher across all prompts and days tested. There was a stronger association between intended and observed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on the first 2 days compared with remaining days. Measurement reactivity appeared as expected for movement-related behaviors and motivational antecedents, though changes in associations between these constructs are likely do not reflect measurement reactivity.

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Portrait of the Assessment Practices of Physical Education Teachers in Quebec: Reporting and Grading

David Bezeau and Audrey-Anne De Guise

Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the assessment practices currently implemented by Quebec physical education teachers regarding reporting and grading. Method: Exploratory mixed-methods study using semistructured interviews (n = 13), interviews to the double (n = 12), and a questionnaire (n = 164) with elementary and high school physical education teachers. Results: Participants use different strategies to report student performance. When grading, their strategy is to combine a mathematical approach with their professional judgment. They often consider all the marks taken during a learning and assessment situation and not only those taken at the end of it. Discussion/Conclusions: The main finding of this study is that teachers’ reporting and grading practices are subjective. We discuss how our results show the subjectivity in teachers’ practices and possible explanations for it, and then conclude by trying to understand how to make assessment in physical education more objective.

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Self-Reported Physical Activity and Mental Health Among Asylum Seekers in a Refugee Camp

Konstantinia Filippou, Florian Knappe, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Ioannis D. Morres, Emmanouil Tzormpatzakis, Elsa Havas, Uwe Pühse, Yannis Theodorakis, and Markus Gerber

Background: Global forced displacement has been rising steeply since 2015 as a result of wars and human rights abuses. Forcibly displaced people are often exposed to physical and mental strain, which can cause traumatic experiences and poor mental health. Physical activity has been linked with better mental health, although such evidence is scarce among those populations. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of self-reported physical activity and fitness with mental health indices among people residing in a refugee camp in Greece as asylum seekers. Methods: Participants were 151 individuals (76 women, 75 men; mean age 28.90 y) displaced from their homes for an average of 32.03 months. Among them, 67% were from Afghanistan and countries from southwest Asia, and 33% from sub-Saharan African countries. Participants completed self-report measures assessing physical activity, fitness, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Results: High prevalence of mental health disorder symptoms and poor well-being were identified, with women and Asians showing poorer mental health. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety were related to perceived fitness, but not to self-reported physical activity. Regression analysis showed that perceived fitness (β: 0.34; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.52) and low-intensity physical activity (β: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.009) significantly positively predicted well-being, showing small to medium effect. Conclusions: The findings provide useful insights regarding the link between physical activity and well-being; nevertheless, further research examining objectively measured physical activity is warranted to complement these data and further explore the associations between physical activity and mental health.

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Teaching a Physical Activity to a Young Child With Autism Using the Three-Tier Video Modeling Model: A Pilot Study

Shu-Chen Wang and Hui-Ting Wang

The Three-Tier Video Modeling intervention model was derived from the theory of Response to Intervention. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the application of the Three-Tier Video Modeling model with a top-down approach in teaching physical activity to a 4-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peers. The study utilized a single case-changing conditions design and measured children’s performance in the target physical activity. The results showed that the boy with autism spectrum disorder acquired the target skill and consequently generalized it to the natural environment, and all peers mastered the skill after intervention. Teachers and parents also reported a more inclusive learning environment. The potential implications of this novel approach were discussed.