Paternalistic institutional structures are strategically arranged to maintain locus of control and preserve male-centric patriarchal authority. A confluence of cultural, social, and legal structures perpetuates paternalism within National Collegiate Athletic Association college sport and specifically in Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) football. This study examined FBS bowl game broadcasts to determine the prevalence of paternalistic and infantilizing commentary. An analysis of in-game commentary from a sample of 18 FBS bowl games from the 2019 to 2020 season revealed that commentators frequently infantilize FBS football players, normalizing a paternalistic and exploitative coach–athlete relationship.
College Football “Kids”: Infantilizing Language in Football Bowl Subdivision Bowl Game Broadcasts
Chris Corr, Crystal Southall, Billy Hawkins, and Richard M. Southall
Hegemony and the National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Critical Discourse Analysis of National Collegiate Athletic Association Resources Concerning Name, Image, and Likeness
When athletes gained rights from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to monetize their name, image, and likeness (NIL), the NCAA’s historic hegemony over college sports was challenged. However, given the recency of NIL, there is minimal research on how the NCAA communicated NIL changes to its members during this time. Through the lens of hegemony theory, this research explored how the NCAA communicated its hegemony and its loss of power via its distribution of NIL resources (N = 48). Critical discourse analysis demonstrated the NCAA and its leaders predominantly employed ideological influence in their communications to members and athletes to follow NIL guidelines. This influence centered around appeals to fairness and amateurism. The NCAA also tried to use coercion to force compliance. Finally, with an increasing trend toward decentralization, the NCAA relinquished hegemony in communications that shifted control to member institutions and by requesting federal involvement.
In Patients With Chronic Pain Conditions, Does Dry Needling Reduce Pain?
Paden Kleinhesselink, Ryan Tierney, Jamie Mansell, and Anne Russ
Dry needling’s primary goal is to alleviate pain by inserting solid filament needles into muscles, tendons, and ligaments to provide a stimulus that inhibits nerve endings to decrease pain. This critically appraised topic investigates the effects dry needling has on patients with various chronic pain conditions and its ability to relieve pain. Articles were selected if patients had a chronic pain condition lasting at least 3 months, pain was reported using the Visual Analog Scale, and were randomized control trials or prospective studies. All selected studies for this critically appraised topic showed significant improvement in chronic pain. With these improvements, dry needling has been shown to be an effective treatment in chronic pain conditions.
Is Just Moving Enough for Girls? The Moderation Role of Gross Motor Development Level in the Association Between Physical Activity and Cognition
Jacqueline Páez-Herrera, Juan Hurtado-Almonacid, Julio B. Mello, Catalina Sobarzo, Paula Plaza-Arancibia, Julian Kain-Berkovic, Barbara Leyton, Johana Soto-Sánchez, Verónica Leiva–Guerrero, and Albert Batalla–Flores
Purpose: Our objective is to describe the moderating effect of the level of gross motor development on the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and visual perception/memory in girls. Methods: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study with a randomized sample of 85 girls (mean age 7.11 ± 0.74) from Chile. The following models were tested: interaction between PA (light: Model 1; moderate–vigorous: Model 2; vigorous: Model 3; and total PA: Model 4) and motor development level associated with visual perception/memory. Variables that showed interaction were tested according to the Johnson-Newman. Results: The Model 2 explains 13% of visual perception/memory and the Model 4 explains 15%, indicating that the motor development level is a moderator of this relationship. Conclusions: Collectively, our results present evidence that girls with a high level of gross motor skills have a stronger relationship between total PA (and also only moderate–vigorous activity) and visual perception/memory.
The “Matildas Effect”: Will the FIFA Women’s World Cup Generate a Legacy in Australia?
Ding Ding, Katherine Owen, Adrian E. Bauman, Gregore I. Mielke, and Klaus Gebel
NATA News & Notes
Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Adapted to Include Adults With Physical Disability
Julianne G. Clina, R. Drew Sayer, James E. Friedman, Tsz Kiu Chui, Tapan Mehta, James H. Rimmer, and James O. Hill
Background: People with physical disabilities (PWD) participate in less physical activity than people without physical disabilities (PWoD), which increases the risk for several negative health consequences. Comparing physical activity between PWD and PWoD remains a challenge since no reliable and valid survey exists to measure physical activity in both populations. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was adapted to be inclusive of PWD using a recently developed survey adaption framework; however, the adapted IPAQ has not been assessed for reliability and validity. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the adapted IPAQ. Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, the adapted IPAQ was completed twice within a 72-hour period by 172 individuals (PWD: n = 102, PWoD: n = 70) and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Using Spearman rho, convergent validity and construct validity were assessed in 62 individuals by comparing the adapted IPAQ against the original instrument and activity monitor measured step count, respectively. Results: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of total scores for the total sample of .690 (95% confidence interval [CI] .581–.770) and among subgroup analysis (PWD, .640, 95% CI, .457–.761; PWoD, .758, 95% CI, .610–.850). Correlation coefficients were also good for the assessment of convergent validity of total score (.727; 95% CI, .579–.829; P < .001). Construct validity assessment yielded moderate coefficient (.406; 95% CI, .166–.596; P = .001). Conclusions: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity and is appropriate for use in PWD and PWoD.
Developing Self-Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Adolescent Soccer: A Community Outreach Pilot Program
Sabrina Gomez Souffront, Enzo R.N. Everett, and Jason Kostrna
Sport provides opportunities for adolescents to develop psychological skills. To realize this potential, sport facilitators must actively create a culture that develops adolescent athletes. Psychological skills training and biofeedback training have been effective at developing psychological skills in adult athletes. However, little research has focused on the effects of psychological skills training and biofeedback training in adolescent athletes. This study tests the efficacy of a pilot community outreach program to promote psychological skills development in adolescent soccer players from a travel soccer team (n = 21). During the 2-week intervention, researchers taught participants psychophysiological content related to self-awareness, emotional intelligence, and decision making. The psychological skills training sessions included active learning activities, group discussions, and reflection. Throughout the sessions, researchers used biofeedback to demonstrate and train participants in psychophysiological concepts. The 2-week intervention gave participants opportunities each day to monitor and reflect on their psychological performance state. Program evaluation data showed descriptive improvements in the ability to focus, control arousal, reduce stress, and control emotions. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests revealed significant positive changes occurred for decision-making self-efficacy. The intervention and efficacy of this study support applied practitioners’ integration of biofeedback and psychological skills training to improve adolescents’ self-awareness, emotional intelligence, and decision making.
The Impact of Multimorbidity Patterns on Changes in Physical Activity and Physical Capacity Among Older Adults Participating in a Year-Long Exercise Intervention
Tiina Savikangas, Taija Savolainen, Anna Tirkkonen, Markku Alén, Arto J. Hautala, Jari A. Laukkanen, Timo Rantalainen, Timo Törmäkangas, and Sarianna Sipilä
This study investigated the impact of multimorbidity patterns on physical activity and capacity outcomes over the course of a year-long exercise intervention, and on physical activity 1 year later. Participants were 314 physically inactive community-dwelling men and women aged 70–85 years, with no contraindications for exercise at baseline. Physical activity was self-reported. Physical capacity measurements included five-time chair-stand time, 6-minute walking distance, and maximal isometric knee-extension strength. The intervention included supervised and home-based strength, balance, and walking exercises. Multimorbidity patterns comprised physician-diagnosed chronic disease conditions as a predictor cluster and body mass index as a measure of obesity. Multimorbidity patterns explained 0%–12% of baseline variance and 0%–3% of the change in outcomes. The magnitude and direction of the impact of unique conditions varied by outcome, time point, and sex. Multimorbid older adults with no contraindications for exercise may benefit from multimodal physical training.
Predictive Factors for Compulsive Exercise in Adolescent Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study
Martine Fortier, Christopher Rodrigue, Camille Clermont, Anne-Sophie Gagné, Audrey Brassard, Daniel Lalande, and Jacinthe Dion
Although exercise is generally considered a healthy lifestyle habit, it may be problematic for some people. This has led to growing research on compulsive exercise—an uncontrollable urge for physical activity despite its deleterious effects. A maintenance model of compulsive exercise has been developed for adults exhibiting weight and shape concerns, weight control behaviors, and specific psychological states (including depression and anxiety) as predictive factors. We identified predicting factors for compulsive exercise in adolescent athletes using the same model framework. These athletes completed the compulsive exercise test and several well-validated psychometric measures. Gender-specific multiple regression models identified stronger drive for thinness, perfectionism, and body image investment in sport as significant predictors of compulsive exercise in boys and girls. Among girls, asceticism and bulimia symptoms were also significantly associated with compulsive exercise. These findings support the relevance of the model for clinical intervention and research on compulsive exercise in adolescent athletes.