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Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Carolina Fernandes da Silva

Brazil is a country member of the Para Report Card, and Brazilian researchers have frequently published information on physical activity of children and adolescents. The current study aimed to analyze the policies for the promotion of adapted physical activity to Brazilian children and adolescents with disabilities. Official government information on adapted physical activity was analyzed from the official websites. Policies were analyzed based on the Para Report Card benchmarks, and after that we used the principles of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to analyze the information. Adapted physical activity is not the main focus of any of the many policies to promote physical activity for children and adolescents. Based on the Para Report Card initiative, the score for this indicator in Brazil is D. Brazil needs to develop specific policies to promote physical activity adapted to the pediatric population with disabilities.

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Per T. Byrkjedal, Thomas Bjørnsen, Live S. Luteberget, Kolbjørn Lindberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Eirik Haukali, and Matt Spencer

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical performance tests and on-ice external load from simulated games (scrimmages) in ice hockey. Methods: A total of 14 players completed a physical performance test battery consisting of 30-m sprint test—run and 30-m sprint test—skate (including 10-m split times and maximum speed), countermovement jump, standing long jump, bench press, pull-ups, and trap bar deadlift and participated in 4 scrimmages. External load variables from scrimmages included total distance; peak speed; slow (< 11.0 km/h), moderate (11.0–16.9 km/h), high (17.0–23.9 km/h), and sprint (> 24.0 km/h) speed skating distance; number of sprints; PlayerLoad™; number of high-intensity events (> 2.5 m/s); accelerations; decelerations; and changes of direction. Bayesian pairwise correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between physical performance tests and external load performance variables. Results: The results showed strong evidence (Bayes factor > 10) for associations between pull-ups and high-intensity events (τ = .61) and between maximum speed skate and peak speed (τ = .55). There was moderate evidence (Bayes factor >3 to <10) for 6 associations: both maximum speed skate (τ = .44) and countermovement jump (τ = .44) with sprint speed skating distance, countermovement jump with number of sprints (τ = .46), pull-ups with changes of direction (τ = .50), trap bar with peak speed (τ = .45), and body mass with total distance (τ = .49). Conclusion: This study found physical performance tests to be associated with some of the external load variables from scrimmages. Nevertheless, the majority of correlations did not display meaningful associations, possibly being influenced by the selection of physical performance tests.

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Justin A. Haegele

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Peter Leo, Manuel Mateo-March, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Xabier Muriel, Alexis Gandía-Soriano, Andrea Giorgi, Mikel Zabala, David Barranco-Gil, Iñigo Mujika, Jesús G. Pallarés, and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose: No information is available on the torque/cadence relationship in road cyclists. We aimed to establish whether this relationship differs between cyclists of different performance levels or team roles. Methods: Mean maximal power (MMP) output data from 177 riders were obtained from 2012 to 2021 from training and competitions. Cyclists were categorized according to their performance level (world-tour [WT, n = 68], procontinental [PC, n = 63], or under 23 [U23, n = 46]) and team role (time trialists [n = 12], all-rounders [n = 94], climbers [n = 64], or team leaders [n = 7]). Results: A significant interaction effect was found for absolute and relative MMP (P < .001), with higher values in PC than WT for short (5–60 s) efforts and the opposite trend for longer durations. MMP was also greater in PC than in U23 for short efforts (30–60 s), with WT and PC attaining higher MMP than U23 for longer bouts (5–60 min). A significant interaction effect was found for cadence (P = .007, but with no post hoc differences) and absolute (P = .010) and relative torque (P = .002), with PC and WT showing significantly higher torque (all P < .05) than U23 for 5- to 60-minute efforts, yet with no differences between the former 2 performance levels. No interaction effect between team roles was found for cadence (P = .185) or relative torque (P = .559), but a significant interaction effect was found for absolute torque (P < .001), with all-rounders attaining significantly higher values than climbers for 5-second to 5-minute efforts. Conclusions: Differences in MMP between cycling performance levels and rider types are dependent on torque rather than cadence, which might support the role of torque development in performance.

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Jad Adrian Washif, Iñigo Mujika, Matthew D. DeLang, João Brito, Alexandre Dellal, Thomas Haugen, Bahar Hassanmirzaei, Del P. Wong, Abdulaziz Farooq, Gürhan Dönmez, Kwang Joon Kim, Juan David Peña Duque, Lewis MacMillan, Ryo Matsunaga, Alireza Rabbani, Mohamed Romdhani, Montassar Tabben, Yacine Zerguini, Piotr Zmijewski, David B. Pyne, and Karim Chamari

The COVID-19 lockdown challenged the training options of athletes worldwide, including players from the most popular sport globally, football/soccer. Purpose: The authors explored the training practices of football players worldwide during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: Football players (N = 2482, 30% professional, 22% semipro, and 48% amateur) completed an online survey (May–July 2020) on their training practices before versus during lockdown (March–June 2020). Questions were related to training frequency and session duration, as well as training knowledge and attitudes. Results: Before lockdown, more professional (87%) than semipro (67%) and amateur (65%) players trained ≥5 sessions/wk, but this proportion decreased during the lockdown to 55%, 35%, and 42%, respectively. Players (80%–87%) trained ≥60 minutes before lockdown, but this proportion decreased to 45% in professionals, 43% in amateurs, and 36% in semipros during lockdown. At home, more than two-thirds of players had training space (73%) and equipment (66%) for cardiorespiratory training, while availability of equipment for technical and strength training was <50% during lockdown. Interactions between coach/trainer and player were more frequent (ie, daily) among professional (27%) than amateur (11%) and semipro (17%) players. Training load monitoring, albeit limited, was mostly performed by fitness coaches, more so with professionals (35%) than amateurs (13%) and semipros (17%). The players’ training knowledge and attitudes/beliefs toward training were relatively modest (50%–59%). Conclusion: COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected training practices of football players worldwide, especially amateurs and semipros, for example, in training frequency, duration, intensity, technical, recovery, and other fitness training and coaching-related aspects. During lockdown-like situations, players should be monitored closely and provided appropriate support to facilitate their training.

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Thomas Zandonai, Ana M. Peiró, Caterina Covelli, Xavier de la Torre, and Francesco Botré

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of tramadol use among athletes from 2012 to 2020. Methods: All urine samples were collected from national and international in-competition doping-control tests that took place in Italy between 2012 and 2020. The analysis of the samples was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry with electronic ionization and acquisition in selected ion monitoring. The cutoff tramadol concentration was >50 ng/mL. Results: Of the 60,802 in-competition urine samples we analyzed, 1.2% (n = 759) showed tramadol intake, with 84.2% (n = 637) of these coming from cyclists and 15.8% (n = 122) from other sports. In cycling, a strong and significant negative correlation was found (r = −.738; P = .003), showing a decrease of tramadol use compared with the other sports. Conclusions: The decrease in tramadol prevalence in cycling in the last years may be due to (1) the deterrent action of antidoping regulations and (2) the fact that tramadol may not have any actual ergogenic effect on performance.

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David J. Scott, Phil Marshall, Samuel T. Orange, and Massimiliano Ditroilo

Purpose: To compare the effects of variable-resistance complex training (VRCT) versus traditional complex training (TCT) on muscle architecture in rugby league players during a 6-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty-four rugby league players competing in the British University & Colleges Sport (BUCS) Premier North Division were randomized to VRCT (n = 8), TCT (n = 8), or control (n = 8). Experimental groups completed a 6-week lower-body complex training intervention (2×/wk), which involved alternating high-load resistance exercise with plyometric exercise in the same session. The VRCT group performed resistance exercises at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) + 0% to 23% of 1RM from band resistance with a 90-second intracontrast rest interval, whereas the TCT group performed resistance exercise at 93% of 1RM with a 4-minute intracontrast rest interval. Muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle, and fascicle length (L f) were assessed for the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis using ultrasound imaging. Results: Both TCT and VRCT groups significantly improved VL MT and VL L f compared with control (all P < .05). Standardized within-group changes in MT and L f (Cohen d av  ± 95% CI) were moderate for TCT (d av  = 0.91 ± 1.0; d av  = 1.1 ± 1.1) and unclear for VRCT (d av  = 0.44 ± 0.99; d av  = 0.47 ± 0.99), respectively. Differences in change scores between TCT and VRCT were unclear. Conclusions: VRCT and TCT can be utilized during the competitive season to induce favorable MT and L f muscle architecture adaptations for the VL. TCT may induce greater muscle architecture adaptations of the VL, whereas VRCT may be of more practical value given the shorter intracontrast rest interval between resistance and plyometric exercises.

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Shaun Abbott, Wei En Leong, Tom Gwinn, Giovanni Luca Postiglione, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

Purpose: To examine the longitudinal relationships between shoulder internal and external rotation (IR and ER) strength, maturity status, and swim performance (aim 1). To determine whether maturity status mediated (partially/fully) the relationship between shoulder IR/ER strength and performance in age-group swimmers (aim 2). Methods: Using a repeated-measures design, anthropometrics, maturity status, shoulder IR/ER strength, and 200-m front-crawl velocity were assessed over 3 competition seasons in N = 82 Australian male competitive swimmers (10–15 y). For aim 1, linear mixed models examined longitudinal relationships between assessed variables. For aim 2, causal mediation analyses examined proportional (in)direct contributions of maturity status between shoulder IR strength and swim performance. Results: For aim 1, linear mixed models identified a significant relationship between shoulder IR strength and swim performance over time (F 1,341.25 = 16.66, P < .001, marginal R 2 = .13, conditional R 2 = .91). However, maturity status was influential (ΔAkaike information criterion = −75.8, χ 2 = 19.98, P < .001), suggesting removal of the shoulder IR strength–swim velocity relationship (F 1,214.1 = 0.02, P = .88). For aim 2, mediation analyses identified maturity status as fully mediating the shoulder IR strength–swim velocity relationship (92.30%, P < .001). Conclusions: Shoulder IR and ER strength did not account for variance in longitudinal age-group swim performance independent of maturity status. Interindividual differences in maturity status fully explained the relationship between shoulder IR/ER strength and swim performance. For practitioners, findings promote the need to account for maturation status and question the rationale for upper-limb strength assessment during maturational years.

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Briana L. Zabierek, Walter C. Wilson, and Frank E. DiLiberto

Context: Collegiate tenpin bowling participation is increasing. Accordingly, the experience level of athletes participating, factors related to performance, as well as training workload and sport specialization are likely evolving. However, literature regarding injury rates remains extremely limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize injuries in collegiate tenpin bowlers. Design: Retrospective cohort survey study. Methods: Tenpin bowling athletes of top-ranked collegiate programs in the United States were invited to participate. Each participant completed an online survey to report on their injury history and additional factors of interest. Descriptive statistics were generated for participant characteristics, injury counts, and overall injury prevalence and recurrence. Chi-square tests were used to determine if overall injury prevalence and recurrence occurred by chance, and to evaluate the influence of gender and conditioning program participation on injury frequencies. Results: The response rate was 40.6% (101/249; N = 101). The sample was 20.02 (1.43) years old and 54.5% female. There were a total of 235 singular and recurrent injuries reported across all body parts. Upper-extremity injuries were the most common (n = 112). Injury prevalence (87%) and recurrence (75%) were more likely than chance (χ 2 > 21.3, both P < .001) and not different based on gender (χ 2 ≤ 1.1, both P ≥ .33). Injuries were more frequent in the absence of a conditioning program (χ 2 = 50.6, P < .001). Conclusions: Injuries and injury recurrence in elite tenpin bowlers were frequent, most common in the upper-extremity, not different based on gender, and more frequent in those without conditioning programs. Findings may serve as foundational knowledge for developing sport-specific rehabilitation and conditioning programs.