David G. Lloyd, Ilse Jonkers, Scott L. Delp, and Luca Modenese
The Executive Council of the International Society of Biomechanics has initiated and overseen the commemorations of the Society’s 50th Anniversary in 2023. This included multiple series of lectures at the ninth World Congress of Biomechanics in 2022 and XXIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics in 2023, all linked to special issues of International Society of Biomechanics’ affiliated journals. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Biomechanics is dedicated to the biomechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system. The reader is encouraged to explore this special issue which comprises 6 papers exploring the current state-of the-art, and future directions and roles for neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics. This editorial presents a very brief history of the science of the neuromusculoskeletal system’s 4 main components: the central nervous system, musculotendon units, the musculoskeletal system, and joints, and how they biomechanically integrate to enable an understanding of the generation and control of human movement. This also entails a quick exploration of contemporary neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics and its future with new fields of application.
Zahra S. Mahdian, Huawei Wang, Mohamed Irfan Mohamed Refai, Guillaume Durandau, Massimo Sartori, and Mhairi K. MacLean
Lower limb exoskeletons and exosuits (“exos”) are traditionally designed with a strong focus on mechatronics and actuation, whereas the “human side” is often disregarded or minimally modeled. Muscle biomechanics principles and skeletal muscle response to robot-delivered loads should be incorporated in design/control of exos. In this narrative review, we summarize the advances in literature with respect to the fusion of muscle biomechanics and lower limb exoskeletons. We report methods to measure muscle biomechanics directly and indirectly and summarize the studies that have incorporated muscle measures for improved design and control of intuitive lower limb exos. Finally, we delve into articles that have studied how the human–exo interaction influences muscle biomechanics during locomotion. To support neurorehabilitation and facilitate everyday use of wearable assistive technologies, we believe that future studies should investigate and predict how exoskeleton assistance strategies would structurally remodel skeletal muscle over time. Real-time mapping of the neuromechanical origin and generation of muscle force resulting in joint torques should be combined with musculoskeletal models to address time-varying parameters such as adaptation to exos and fatigue. Development of smarter predictive controllers that steer rather than assist biological components could result in a synchronized human–machine system that optimizes the biological and electromechanical performance of the combined system.
Vanessa Pitre, Martin Sénéchal, and Danielle R. Bouchard
Exercise is the single most effective strategy to reduce the risk of falls. Online classes have grown in popularity, but the benefits of online classes remain unknown. Zoomers on the Go is a peer-led 12-week exercise program offered twice weekly to adults 50+ years old. The main outcome was lower body strength measured by the 30-s chair stand test. Other outcomes included dropout, attendance, balance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and perceived health. A total of 74 participants (age 66.3 ± 7.1 years) in the online group and 84 participants in the in-person group (age 67.3 ± 7.2 years) completed the program, with attendance for the online group. Both groups significantly improved their 30-s chair stand, cardiorespiratory fitness, and balance (p < .001) with no difference in functional benefits between groups. The in-person group improved their perceived health and significantly reduced levels of stress and depression, while no such changes were observed in the online group.
Ting Liu, Michelle Hamilton, and YuChun Chen
Over the past decade, enrollment in the exercise science graduate program at Texas State University has shown consistent growth. However, the program’s level of diversity has been low, as indicated by the college’s equity audit report. In response to the imperative of social justice and equity in the field of kinesiology, this article presents one recruitment strategy and two retention strategies aimed at fostering inclusivity in the graduate program. The recruitment strategy describes the steps to establish a partnership with Huston-Tillotson University (a historically Black university). This partnership serves as a means to create a pathway for underrepresented students to pursue graduate studies in exercise science. The two retention strategies explain how a peer-mentoring program and alumni connect can be used to foster an inclusive experience for current students and recent graduates and to promote student success and retention. The benefits of each strategy and suggestions to implement the strategies are also described.
Mohsen Vahdani, Lorcan Cronin, and Najmeh Rezasoltani
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Life Skills Scale for Physical Education (P-LSSPE). Method: During Study 1, which included four translators, eight physical education experts, and 45 physical education students, the LSSPE was translated and adapted into Persian, and its content validity was assessed. Study 2 assessed evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the scale with a sample of 1,004 students. Study 3, which included 462 students, assessed nomological validity evidence. Results: In Study 1, the content validity analyses indicated that the P-LSSPE items and their dimensions were clear in language, practical in application, and represented the life skills in question. In Study 2, a bifactor confirmatory factor analysis model was the best representation of the data and provided evidence for the construct validity of the scale. In Study 3, evidence for the nomological validity of the P-LSSPE was provided, with the correlation coefficients indicating that teacher autonomy support was associated with students’ development of all eight life skills and total life skills. Discussion/Conclusion: Overall, the findings of this research suggest that the P-LSSPE can be used to accurately measure the life skills development of Iranian physical education students.