Clinical Question: Is there sufficient evidence to determine which low back instability tests should be incorporated into a stabilization classification exam for athletes? Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate level 2 evidence to include, but not to use in isolation, the prone instability test along with other instability tests in a stabilization classification exam.
Gabriel Andrade Paz, Lohanne Almeida, Larissa Ruiz, Sabrina Casseres, Giovanna Xavier, João Lucas, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Scott Bonnette and Jeffrey Willardson
Study design: Cross-over study. Context: The squat, single-leg squat, forward lunge, and reverse lunge are fundamental movements often performed in activities of daily living, sports competitions, and sport-specific training. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of visual feedback with a laser sensor (VFLS) versus a control condition on the myoelectric activity (surface electromyography [sEMG]) of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis, gluteus medius (Gmed), and erector spinae muscles during the performance of several squat variations with bodyweight. Methods: Nineteen female college students (20 [2.5] y, 165.3 [10.2] cm, 66.4 [4.1] kg, 2 [1.2] y of resistance training experience) with a background in strength or sports training volunteered to participate in this study. Over 4 separate visits, subjects performed 2 sets of 10 repetitions of a squat variation exercise in random order (ie, squat, single-leg squat, forward lunge, and reverse lunge). The first set of a given squat variation condition was considered a control set, and then after 3-minute rest, a second set was performed with VFLS. Results: Significant decreases in VMO and Gmed myoelectric activity were observed during the VFLS set versus the control set for the forward lunge exercise (P = .03). No differences were observed between the control set and VFLS set in the sEMG normalized signal for all muscles analyzed for the squat and single-leg squat, respectively. However, the sample entropy of the sEMG signal for the erector spinae became more irregular during the VFLS set versus the control set for the squat exercise (P = .01), whereas the Gmed presented a more irregular sEMG signal during the VFLS set versus the control set for the single-leg squat (P = .08). Conclusion: Laser sensor biofeedback may induce significant decreases in VMO and Gmed activation performing forward lunge exercise. Therefore, laser sensor biofeedback may induce a reduction in muscle activity of neutralizers muscles during a few squat bodyweight variations (bilateral, single-leg, forward, and reverse lunge).
Oren Tirosh, Guy Orland, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Nili Steinberg
This study aimed to identify differences in ground impact shock attenuation between overweight and healthy-weight children during running. Twenty overweight children aged 8.4 (1.1) years and 12 healthy-weight children aged 10.7 (1.3) years ran on a treadmill (120% of baseline speed) while wearing 2 inertial sensors located on their distal tibia and lower back (L3). Peak acceleration attenuation coefficient at foot contact and transfer function of the acceleration were calculated. Peak positive acceleration values were not significantly different between the overweight children and healthy-weight children (3.98 [1.17] g and 3.71 [0.84] g, respectively, P = .49). Children with healthy weight demonstrated significant greater attenuation as evident by greater peak acceleration attenuation coefficient (35.4 [19.3] and 11.9 [27.3], respectively, P < .05) and lower transfer function of the acceleration values (−3.8 [1.9] and −1.2 [1.5], respectively, P < .05). Despite the nonsignificant differences between groups in tibia acceleration at foot–ground impact that was found in the current study, the shock absorption of overweight children was reduced compared with their healthy-weight counterparts.
Alice D. LaGoy, Caleb Johnson, Katelyn F. Allison, Shawn D. Flanagan, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai and Chris Connaboy
Warfighter performance may be compromised through the impact of load carriage on dynamic postural stability. Men and women may experience this impact to differing extents due to postural stability differences. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of load magnitude on dynamic postural stability in men and women during a landing and stabilization task. Dynamic postural stability of 32 subjects (16 women) was assessed during the unilateral landing of submaximal jumps under 3 load conditions: +0%, +20%, and +30% body weight. Dynamic postural stability was measured using the dynamic postural stability index, which is calculated from ground reaction force data sampled at 1200 Hz. Two-way mixed-measures analysis of variance compared dynamic postural stability index scores between sexes and loads. Dynamic postural stability index scores were significantly affected by load (P = .001) but not by sex or by the sex by load interaction (P > .05). Dynamic postural stability index scores increased between the 0% (0.359 ± 0.041), 20% (0.396 ± 0.034), and 30% (0.420 ± 0.028) body weight conditions. Increased load negatively affects dynamic postural stability with similar performance decrements displayed by men and women. Men and women warfighters may experience similar performance decrements under load carriage conditions of similar relative magnitudes.
Fariba Hasanbarani and Mark L. Latash
The authors studied indices of stability (ΔV) of two time-varying variables, hand coordinate and velocity, during accurate throw of a small ball into the basket. Ten participants performed the throwing task with eyes-open (vision) and -closed (no vision) conditions. In the latter condition, participants closed their eyes prior to initiating the throw. The intertrial variance in the joint configuration space (and joint velocity space) was analyzed based on the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The results confirmed the presence of both coordinate- and velocity-stabilizing synergies (ΔV > 0). Intertrial variance was larger in the no-vision condition compared with the vision condition. Over the movement duration, ΔV did not change for the coordinate-related analysis but dropped consistently for the velocity-related analysis. The authors interpret the findings within the idea of hierarchical control and trade-off between synergy indices at different levels of the hierarchy.
Mohammad H. Izadi Farhadi, Foad Seidi, Hooman Minoonejad and Abbey C. Thomas
Context: Many factors have been reported contributing to altering the neuromuscular function of hip and knee muscles. The lumbar hyperlordosis, as a poor posture in some athletes, is thought to be associated with the alteration of the hip and knee muscles activity. Objective: To examine the activation of selected hip and knee muscles in athletes with and without lumbar hyperlordosis during functional activities. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Twenty-six college male athletes (n = 13 with and n = 13 without lumbar hyperlordosis). Interventions: Surface electromyography of gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), and vastus lateralis (VL) were recorded during single-leg squat and single-leg jump landing (SLJL) tasks. Main Outcome Measure: Preactivity; reactivity; and onset muscle during SLJL and eccentric activity during single-leg squat (GMAX, GMED, VMO, and VL along with the ratio of VMO:VL) were assessed. Results: Athletes with lumbar hyperlordosis had a higher level of activity in their GMAX (P = .003), VMO (P = .04), and VL (P = .01) muscles at the moment before foot contact during SLJL. These athletes also demonstrated a higher level of GMAX activity (P = .01) immediately after foot contact. Finally, athletes with lumbar hyperlordosis activated their GMAX sooner (P = .02) during the SLJL. Athletes with normal lumbar lordosis had more activity in their GMED muscle (P = .001) in the descending phase of the single-leg squat task and a higher VMO:VL (P = .01) at the moment after the foot contact during the SLJL. Conclusion: The altered activation of GMAX, GMED, VMO, VL, and VMO:VL can reveal the role of lumbar hyperlordosis in the knee and hip muscles’ alteration in athletes. Further study is needed to identify whether these alterations in the hip and knee muscles contribute to injury in athletes.
Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano
Clinical Scenario: Exercise in the heat can lead to performance decrements and increase the risk of heat illness. Heat acclimation refers to the systematic and gradual increase in exercise in a controlled, laboratory environment. Increased duration and intensity of exercise in the heat positively affects physiological responses, such as higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature. Many heat acclimation studies have examined the hydration status of the subjects exercising in the heat. Some of the physiological responses that are desired to elicit heat acclimation (ie, higher heart rate and internal body temperature) are exacerbated in a dehydrated state. Thus, euhydration (optimal hydration) and dehydration trials during heat acclimation induction have been conducted to determine if there are additional benefits to dehydrated exercise trials on physiological adaptations. However, there is still much debate over hydration status and its effect on heat acclimation. Clinical Question: Does dehydration affect the adaptations of plasma volume, heart rate, internal body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat rate during the induction phase of heat acclimation? Summary of Findings: There were no observed differences in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature following heat acclimation in this critically appraised topic. One study found an increase in sweat rate and another study indicated greater changes in heart rate following heat acclimation with dehydration. Aside from these findings, all 4 trials did not observe statistically significant differences in euhydrated and dehydrated heat acclimation trials. Clinical Bottom Line: There is minimal evidence to suggest that hydration status affects heat acclimation induction. In the studies that met the inclusion criteria, there were no differences in plasma volume concentrations, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Scale, Level 2 evidence exists.
Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon
Context: Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was designed for artificial muscle activation or superimposed training. Objectives: To compare the effects of 8 weeks of superimposed technique (ST; application of electrical stimulation during a voluntary muscle action) and EMS on the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal wall, and on lumbopelvic control. Setting: University research laboratory. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Fifty healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the ST or EMS group. Intervention: The participants engaged with the electrical stimulation techniques (ST or EMS) for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: In all participants, the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis and lateral abdominal wall was measured by magnetic resonance imaging and lumbopelvic control, quantified using the single-leg and double-leg lowering tests. Results: There were no significant differences in the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis (right: P = .70, left: P = .99) or lateral abdominal wall (right: P = .07, left: P = .69) between groups. There was a significant difference between groups in the double-leg lowering test (P = .03), but not in the single-leg lowering test (P = .88). There were significant differences between the preintervention and postintervention in the single-leg (P < .001) and double-leg lowering tests (P < .001). Conclusions: ST could improve lumbopelvic control in the context of athletic training and fitness.
Bridget M. Walsh, Katherine A. Bain, Phillip A. Gribble and Matthew C. Hoch
Clinical Scenario: Patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) commonly display lower levels of self-reported function and health-related quality of life. Several rehabilitation interventions, including manual therapy, have been investigated to help CAI patients overcome these deficits. However, it is unclear if the addition of manual therapy to exercise-based rehabilitation is more effective than exercise-based rehabilitation alone. Clinical Question: Does incorporating manual therapy with exercise-based rehabilitation improve patient-reported outcomes when compared with exercise-based rehabilitation alone? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for articles that examined the difference in outcomes for patients with CAI between manual therapy with exercise-based rehabilitation and exercise-based rehabilitation alone. A total of 3 peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials were identified. Two articles demonstrated improved patient-reported outcome scores following the incorporation of manual therapy with exercise-based rehabilitation, whereas one study found no statistically significant differences between interventions. Clinical Bottom Line: The current evidence suggests that incorporating manual therapy in addition to exercised-based rehabilitation may improve patient-reported outcome scores in patients with CAI. Strength of Recommendation: In accordance with the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, the grade of A is recommended due to consistent evidence from high-quality studies.
Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni
Context: People with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suffer from weaknesses in their core muscle activity and dysfunctional breathing. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) was recently developed to treat this condition. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of IMT on core muscle activity, pulmonary parameters, and pain intensity in athletes with CLBP. Design: This study was designed as a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Clinical rehabilitation laboratory. Participants: A total of 23 male and 24 female athletes with CLBP were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. Main Outcome Measures: The experimental group performed IMT for 8 weeks, 7 days per week and twice daily, using POWERbreathe KH1, beginning at 50% of maximum inspiratory pressure with a progressively increasing training load. The surface electromyography muscle activity of the erector spinae, multifidus, transverse abdominis and rectus abdominis, respiratory function and Visual Analogue Scale score were also measured before and after the intervention in both groups. The repeated-measures analysis of variance and 1-way analysis of covariance were further used to compare the intragroup and intergroup results following the intervention. Results: The findings of the study revealed that multifidus and transverse abdominis activity, as well as respiratory function, increased significantly in the IMT group (P < .05). Moreover, a descending trend was observed in the Visual Analogue Scale score in the experimental group (P < .05). Conclusion: The results showed that IMT can improve respiratory function, increase core muscle activity, and, consequently, reduce pain intensity in athletes with CLBP.