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Richard R. Suminski, Robert J. Robertson, Fredric L. Goss, Silva Arslanian, Jie Kang, Sergio DaSilva, Alan C. Utter and Kenneth F. Metz

Sixteen men completed four trials at random as follows: (Trial A) performance of a single bout of resistance exercise preceded by placebo ingestion (vitamin C); (Trial B) ingestion of 1,500 mg L-arginine and 1,500 mg L-lysine, immediately followed by exercise as in Trial A; (Trial C) ingestion of amino acids as in Trial B and no exercise; (Trial D) placebo ingestion and no exercise. Growth hormone (GH) concentrations were higher at 30,60, and 90 min during the exercise trials (A and B) compared with the resting trials (C and D) (p < .05). No differences were noted in [GH] between the exercise trials. [GH] was significantly elevated during resting conditions 60 min after amino acid ingestion compared with the placebo trial. It was concluded that ingestion of 1,500 mg arginine and 1,500 mg ly sine immediately before resistance exercise does not alter exercise-induced changes in [GH] in young men. However, when the same amino acid mixture is ingested under basal conditions, the acute secretion of GH is increased.

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Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin

Physical education teachers have been criticized for not implementing progressive or innovative instruction resulting in enhanced student knowledge and skills for lifetime participation in physical activity. Purpose: To investigate how teachers with varying dispositions toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. Methods: Thirty-two teachers completed a survey of personal dispositions toward change and participated in in-depth interviews. Results: Teachers perceived that students’ response to instructional methods and student contact time (days/week), as well as interactions with teaching colleagues and administrators influenced their ability to make pedagogical changes. Teachers with limited student contact time reported scheduling as a barrier to change, whereas daily student contact was a facilitator. Change-disposed teachers were more likely to promote student learning and assume leadership roles. Conclusion: Reform efforts should include consideration of teacher dispositions and student contact time.

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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

Purpose: This study examined how content knowledge (CK) varies between teachers with different levels of content expertise in teaching volleyball. In addition, it investigated changes to the content-experienced (C-Exd) teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and their students’ performances after developing CK, compared with those of the content-expert (C-Ext) teachers. Method: Two C-Exd and two C-Ext teachers and their 72 students participated in this study. A well-designed CK workshop was implemented for the two C-Exd teachers’ CK improvement. Differences in the teachers’ CK, enacted PCK, and their students’ performance measures were compared. Results: The results of this study indicated that the C-Ext teachers possessed stronger CK than the C-Exd teachers and that the C-Exd teachers improved their enacted PCK and the students’ motor performance after the CK workshop without showing statistically significant differences from those of the C-Ext teachers. Conclusion: The study presents ways to promote teacher effectiveness with supportive evidence-based practices.

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José-Antonio Cecchini, Antonio Méndez-Giménez and Beatriz Sánchez-Martínez

The objective of the study was to analyze changes in motivation in physical education students during a school year, as well as changes in their intentions to be physically active. The participants were 830 Spanish physical education students (M age = 13.86, range = 11–17 years) attending 10 secondary schools in northern Spain. The sample was divided into two groups: TARGET condition (n = 417), in which Epstein’s TARGET strategies were applied, and non-TARGET condition (n = 413). Questionnaires were administered at three different times during the school year: T1 (September), T2 (February), and T3 (June). Mixed-model linear procedures with maximum likelihood estimates were carried out. In the TARGET condition group, the results showed an increase in students’ intrinsic motivation, identified regulation and introjected regulation, whereas external regulation and amotivation gradually decreased. In the non-TARGET condition group, a decrease in students’ intrinsic motivation and identified regulation emerged, as well as an increase in external regulation and amotivation.

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Jose A. Cecchini and Alejandro Carriedo

Purpose: New ways of teaching have been under consideration over the last decade. Thus, this study aims to examine the effects of an interdisciplinary educational approach integrating physical education and mathematics on light and moderate–vigorous physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and learning subtraction. Method: Forty-six first-grade students (M age = 76.98 ± 3.74 months) wore an accelerometer for 4 weeks to measure their PA levels. For 3 weeks, one group (n = 23) attended their physical education and mathematic lessons separately according to the traditional curriculum development (i.e., regular classroom lessons), and the other group (n = 23) was taught through an integrated curriculum based on an interdisciplinary approach integrating physical education and mathematics where the curricular time devoted to these subjects was unified. Results: Several t-test analyses revealed significant between-group differences in all variables following the curricular interventions. Students from the interdisciplinary group reached higher levels of light PA, t(44) = −10.095, p < .001, d = 2.97; moderate–vigorous PA, t(44) = −7.950, p < .001, d = 2.35; and spent less time in sedentary behavior, t(44) = 13.549, p < .001, d = 4.01, than students who attended regular classroom lessons. Moreover, the students from the interdisciplinary group achieved higher scores in subtraction learning, t(44) = −4.06, p < .001, d = 1.20. Discussion/Conclusion: The integration of PA into learning environments such as mathematics might help to develop tools that improve mathematical learnings (i.e., subtraction). Likewise, this kind of interdisciplinary approach may contribute to increase the children’s PA levels during the school day.

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

Purpose: A comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is designed to help school-aged youth meet physical activity guidelines as well as develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that foster meaningful lifelong physical activity participation. In this study, we employed a “diffusion of innovations theory” perspective to examine the adoption of CSPAPs in relation to physical education teachers’ domain-specific innovativeness, educational background, demographics, and perceived school support. Methods: Physical education teachers (N = 407) responded to an electronic survey with validated measures for each of the above-mentioned variables. Results: Latent profile analysis classified teachers into three domain-specific innovativeness levels (high, average, and low). CSPAP-related professional training, knowledge, and perceived school support were found to be significant factors in domain-specific innovativeness and CSPAP adoption. Discussion/Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence to inform professional development initiatives so that they can be tailored to physical education teachers who may be less likely to adopt a CSPAP.

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Jeroen Koekoek and Annelies Knoppers

Purpose: To explore how the use of gender categorizations inform children’s preferences of working with others in physical education. Method: Draw, write, and tell procedures were used to elicit the thoughts and feelings of 42 children, across four schools, about their peers and working together in groups. The children, aged between 11 and 13 years, were distributed across 14 focus groups to talk about conditions in group work that they thought facilitated and inhibited their learning. Results: Two meta-themes—(a) classmates and friendships and (b) work intention and trust—emerged from the interview data about their preferences for the ways groups were constituted. The results indicated that these children created or constructed categories of their peers based on gender but using gender-neutral words. Conclusion: Their constructions of working with others in PE contributed to an implicit curriculum consisting of different expectations for the same gender and for other gender groups.

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

Purpose: To examine the prevalence of and approaches to monitoring health-related physical fitness (HRPF) in secondary school-based physical education programs. Methods: Physical education teachers (N = 327; 56.6% females) from 235 secondary schools (33.1% of national total) in the Republic of Ireland completed a survey designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Results: HRPF tests were used by 95.3% of teachers. A significant decline in the testing frequency was observed from the junior grades (age 13–15 years) to the senior grades (age 16–18 years) (p < .001). Just over half (51.7%) of the teachers discarded the test results after a single use. Less than one third of the teachers indicated that they shared the test results with the students’ parents. The vast majority (87.0%) of the teachers agreed that the development of a digital platform would facilitate monitoring test results over time. Conclusions: HRPF testing is highly prevalent in secondary schools. More actions are needed to ensure that teachers use pedagogically sound student-centered approaches toward monitoring HRPF, with a focus on learning that may lead to more positive testing experiences for students. Consideration should be given to the development of digital platforms to facilitate monitoring and reporting HRPF.

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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

Purpose: To assess the impact of a sustained Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program in Physical Education. Method: There were 72 primary and secondary education students (11–13 years), enrolled in two different schools, and their four teachers were randomly distributed into an experimental group (n = 35) and a nonequivalent group (n = 37) by their schools’ administration. A pre-/posttest, repeated-measures nonequivalent group design was used. The two teachers of the experimental group implemented a Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program, whereas the two teachers of the nonequivalent group used Direct Instruction in their classes over four consecutive learning units (29 sessions, 5 months). Results: Students in the experimental group significantly increased their personal and social responsibility (p < .01), self-determined motivation (p < .01), basic psychological needs satisfaction (competence, autonomy, and relatedness; p < .01), sportsmanship (p < .05), and intention to be physically active outside school (p < .05). Conclusion: The Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility program was more able to increase students’ self-determined motivation and to generate positive psychosocial consequences than the Direct Instruction approach.

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Kate Hovey, Diana Niland and John T. Foley

Purpose: Self-efficacy, having been identified as a factor influencing teacher effectiveness, combined with the increased prevalence of outdoor education (OE) content being taught within physical education contexts, warrants the need for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to address OE outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an OE program increased self-efficacy to teach OE among PETE students. Methods: PETE students (N = 95) were taught OE content in multiple residential environments and were evaluated using the “Survey of Self-efficacy for Teaching Outdoor Education.” Results: Results indicated a significant increase in self-efficacy scores from pretest to posttest in all content areas (OE skills, group dynamic skills, and models and theories). Overall, the OE program had a large effect in changing self-efficacy scores. Conclusion: Participation in the program positively affected PETE students’ self-efficacy for teaching OE, which may improve their ability to ultimately teach this content in physical education settings.